Best of the Web / SuperSearch (1 of 3 : Distance
from Belief - Text version)

(Top Posts - Distance From Belief
in theism - 121909)

- - -

This post includes links to the best websites for disbelief,
including text excerpts from most of the included Wiki-
pedia links regarding disbelief.

For the updated graphic version of this post, see

Best of the Web / SuperSearch (1 of 3 : Distance from
Belief - Graphic Version)
  http://prohuman.net/bestoftheweb.htm

The graphic version of this post, and its associated 'Best
of' the Web' posts on Science and History/Social/Legal are
accessible from the "Best of the Web / Supersearch" drop-
down menu bar on every Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
page.

- - -

About.com: Agnosticism/Atheism
  http://tinyurl.com/atheismaboutcom

- - -

Secular Web: Atheism, Agnosticism, Naturalism,
Skepticism and Secularism
  http://www.infidels.org/

- - -

RichardDawkins.net - The Official Richard Dawkins
Website
  http://richarddawkins.net/

- - -

Positive Atheism
  http://www.positiveatheism.org/

- - -

Skeptic's Annotated Bible / Quran / Book of Mormon
  http://skepticsannotatedbible.com/

- - -

American Atheists
  http://www.atheists.org/

- - -

The Onion (satire website)
  http://www.theonion.com/content/index

- - -

Zazzle - Heretic Greeting Cards, Note Cards,
and Heretic Greeting Card Templates
  http://www.zazzle.com/heretic+cards

- - -

Atheist Alliance International
  http://www.atheistalliance.org/

- - -

ReligiousTolerance.org by the Ontario
Consultants on Religious Tolerance
  http://www.religioustolerance.org/

- - -

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER Home Page
  http://prohuman.net/

- - -

Agnosticism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnosticism
Agnosticism is the view that the truth value of certain
claims - especially claims about the existence of any
deity, but also other religious and metaphysical claims -
is unknown or unknowable. ...

- - -

Antireligion
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antireligion
Antireligion is distinct from atheism and antitheism (oppo-
sition to belief in deities), although antireligionists may be
atheists or antitheists. The term may be used to describe
opposition to organized religion, or to describe a broader
opposition to any form of belief in the supernatural or the
divine. ...

- - -

Antitheism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antitheism
Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition
to theism. ... The term has had a range of applications;
in secular contexts, it typically refers to direct opposition
to organized religion or to the belief in any deity, while in
a theistic context, it sometimes refers to opposition to a
specific god or gods. ...

- - -

Apatheism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apatheism
Apatheism (a portmanteau of apathy and theism/atheism),
also known as pragmatic or critically as practical atheism,
is acting with apathy, disregard, or lack of interest towards
belief, or lack of belief in a deity. ... An apatheist is also
someone who is not interested in accepting or denying any
claims that gods exist or do not exist. ...

- - -

Atheism Portal
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Atheism
Atheism is the philosophical position that either affirms the
nonexistence of gods or rejects theism. In its broadest defin-
ition, atheism is the absence of belief in deities, sometimes
called nontheism. Although atheists are commonly assumed
to be irreligious, some religions, such as Buddhism, have
been characterized as atheistic. Many self-described athe-
ists share common skeptical concerns regarding supernatural
claims, citing a lack of empirical evidence for the existence of
deities. Other arguments for atheism are philosophical, social
or historical. ...

- - -

Atheism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atheism
Atheism can be either the rejection of theism, or the position
that deities do not exist. In the broadest sense, it is the ab-
sence of belief in the existence of deities. ...

- - -

Freethought
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freethought
Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that opin-
ions should be formed on the basis of science, logic, and
reason, and should not be influenced by authority, tradition,
or any other dogma. The cognitive application of freethought
is known as freethinking, and practitioners of freethought are
known as freethinkers. ...

- - -

Ignosticism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignosticism
Ignosticism, or igtheism, is the theological position that every
other theological position (including agnosticism) assumes too
much about the concept of God and many other theological
concepts. ... a coherent definition of God must be presented
before the question of the existence of God can be meaning-
fully discussed. Furthermore, if that definition is unfalsifiable,
the ignostic takes the theological noncognitivist position that
the question of the existence of God (per that definition) is
meaningless. ...

- - -

Irreligion
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irreligion
Irreligion is an absence of, indifference towards, and/or hos-
tility towards religion. ...

- - -

Nontheism Portal
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Nontheism
Nontheism covers a range of concepts regarding spirituality
and religion which do not include the idea of a theistic God
or gods. It can be applied to atheism (both strong and weak),
agnosticism, ignosticism and apatheism, to certain Eastern reli-
gions including Taoism, Buddhism and some Hindu traditions,
and to some Wiccan other Neopagan traditions. Nontheism
is an integral part of Humanism and Unitarian-Universalism. ...

- - -

Nontheism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nontheism
Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and
nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of - or the
rejection of - theism or any belief in a personal god or gods.

- - -

Secular Humanism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secular_humanism
Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that espouses
reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the super-
natural and religious dogma as the basis of morality and deci-
sion-making. Like other types of humanism, secular humanism
is a life stance that focuses on the way human beings can lead
good, happy and functional lives. ...

- - -

Theological Noncognitivism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theological_noncognitivism
Theological noncognitivism is the argument that religious lan-
guage, and specifically words like 'God' (capitalized), are
not cognitively meaningful. ... It is sometimes considered to
be synonymous with Ignosticism. ...

- - -

Apostasy
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apostasy
Apostasy is the formal religious disaffiliation or abandonment
or renunciation of one's religion ... refers to renunciation and
criticism of, or opposition to, one's former religion. ...

- - -

Bible : Authors
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authors_of_the_Bible
This list of authors of the Bible gives the traditional and modern
scholarly views. ...

- - -

Bible : Biblical Criticism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_criticism
Biblical criticism is the study and investigation of biblical writ-
ings that seeks to make discerning and discriminating judgments
about these writings. It asks when and where a particular text
originated; how, why, by whom, for whom, and in what cir-
cumstances it was produced; what influences were at work in
its production; what sources were used in its composition and
the message it was intended to convey. ... draws upon a wide
range of scholarly disciplines including archaeology, anthropol-
ogy, folklore, linguistics, oral tradition studies, and historical
and religious studies. ...

- - -

Bible : Criticism of the Bible
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Bible
This article is about criticisms which are made against the Bible
as a source of information or ethical guidance ...

- - -

Bible : Higher Criticism of the Bible
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_criticism
Historical criticism or higher criticism is a branch of literary anal-
ysis that investigates the origins of a text: as applied in biblical
studies it investigates the books of the Bible and compares them
to other texts written at the same time, before, or recently after
the text in question. ... higher criticism ... focuses on the sources
of a document to determine who wrote it, when it was written,
and where. ...

- - -

Brights Movement
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brights_movement
The Brights movement is a social movement that aims to promote
public understanding and acknowledgment of the naturalistic
worldview. ...

- - -

Criticism of Christianity
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Christianity
... This article considers several areas of criticism including some
claims of scripture itself, ethics of biblical interpretations that have
been used historically to justify attitudes and behaviors that are
seen by critics as clearly wrong, the question of compatibility
with science, and certain Christian doctrines that some find un-
settling or unreasonable. ...

- - -

Criticism of Hinduism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Hinduism
Some aspects of Hinduism have been criticized, from both within
the Hindu community and externally ... such as Sati [a funeral
practice among some Hindu communities in which a recently
widowed woman would either voluntarily or by use of force
and coercion immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre.
This practice is now rare and outlawed in modern India] and
discrimination based on the caste system. ...

- - -

Criticism of Islam
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Islam
Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages.
... Objects of criticism include the morality of the life of Muham-
mad, the prophet of Islam, both in his public and personal life.
Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Qur'an,
the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics. Other
criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern
Islamic nations, and the treatment of women in Islamic law
and practice ...

- - -

Criticism of the Qur'an
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Qur%27an
... criticism of the Qur'an has historically been a frequent occur-
rence ... [among those critcisms, the following are included] ...
questions regarding the historical authenticity of the Qur'an ...
claim of divine origin ... criticism of Qur'an science ... criticism
of Qur'an promotion of violence, including violence against
women ... contradictory statements, some negative, towards
Christians and Jews ...

Islamic terrorism is inspired by numerous Quranic verses
which are taken by extremists to preach a view of Jihad that
justifies or encourages the attacking of non-Muslims. ...

- - -

Criticism of Religion
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_religion
Critics consider religion to be outdated, to be harmful to the
individual (e.g. brainwashing of children, faith healing, circum-
cision), to be harmful to society (e.g. holy wars, terrorism,
wasteful distribution of resources), to impede the progress
of science, and to encourage immoral acts (e.g. blood sacri-
fice, discrimination against homosexuals and women). ...

Some critics of religion ... assert that theist religions and
their holy books are not divinely inspired, but instead are
fabrications of non-divine human individuals, created to
fulfill social, biological, and political needs. ...

- - -

Demographics of Atheism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_atheism

- - -

Empiricism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empiricism
... In the philosophy of science, empiricism emphasizes those
aspects of scientific knowledge that are closely related to evi-
dence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a funda-
mental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and
theories must be tested against observations of the natural
world, rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intui-
tion, or revelation. Hence, science is considered to be meth-
odologically empirical in nature. ...

- - -

List of Fictitious Nontheists
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fictitious_atheists_and_agnostics

- - -

List of Nontheists
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nontheists

- - -

List of Secularist Organizations in the U.S.A.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_secularist_organizations#United_States

- - -

Logical Positivism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_positivism
Logical positivism (also called logical empiricism and neo-pos-
itivism) is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism - the
idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge
of the world - with a version of rationalism ...

- - -

Meaning of Life
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meaning_of_life
The meaning of life constitutes a philosophical question concern-
ing the purpose and significance of existence and/or biological
life in general. This concept can be expressed through a variety
of related questions, such as Why are we here?, What is life
all about? and What is the meaning of it all? ...

- - -

Metaphysical Naturalism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphysical_naturalism
Metaphysical naturalism ... characterizes any worldview in
which reality is such that there is nothing but the natural things,
forces, and causes of the kind that the natural sciences study,
i.e. the things, forces and causes which are required in order
to understand our physical environment ... rejects the objec-
tive existence of any supernatural thing, force or cause, such
as are described in humanity's various religions and mytho-
logical accounts.

In this view, all  supernatural things are ultimately explainable
purely in terms of natural things. It is not merely a view about
what science studies now, but it can also emphasize what sci-
ence will encompass in the future. ...

- - -

Naturalism (Philosophy)
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalism_%28philosophy%29
Methodological naturalism or scientific naturalism ... is specific-
ally concerned with practical methods for acquiring knowledge
 ...  requires that hypotheses be explained and tested only by
reference to natural causes and events.

Explanations of observable effects are considered to be prac-
tical and useful only when they hypothesize natural causes.
Metaphysical naturalism ... is concerned with existence: what
does exist and what does not exist? Metaphysical naturalism
is the metaphysical position that nature is all there is, and all
basic truths are truths of nature. ...

- - -

Out Campaign
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Out_Campaign
The Out Campaign is a public awareness initiative for free-
thought and atheism. It is endorsed by Richard Dawkins, who
is a prominent atheist himself. ... encourages one to 'OUT' only
oneself; it urges atheists to:

  a. Reach out and talk to others about atheism and help spread
      a positive view of atheism
  b. Speak out about their own beliefs and values without feeling
      intimidated, thus helping people realize that atheists don't fit
      stereotypes and are a very diverse group
  c. Keep out, meaning to promote the idea that religion should
      be kept out of public schools and government, and that
      nobody's religious agenda should be allowed to intimidate
  d. Stand out and become visible in their communities by becom-
      ing involved and by wearing the Scarlet A.

- - -

Religious Harm : Crusades
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusades
The Crusades were a series of religiously-sanctioned military
campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly
the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific
crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were
fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and
1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued
into the 15th century. ...

- - -

Religious Fanaticism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_fanaticism
Religious fanaticism is fanaticism related to a person's, or a
group's, devotion to a religion. ... Examples of Religious
Fanaticism:

o Christianity ... Ever since Christianity was brought to power,
   those in authority have sought to expand and control the
   church, often through the fanatical use of force. ... Christians,
   in persecutions of other religions, in wars about religion, and
   in wars of conquest, have perhaps been more violent than
   members of any other religion except Islam ...

o Islam ... Perhaps Islam has come to be the most publicized
   religion with members who display fanatic tendencies. Ever
   since Osama bin Laden's fatwa in 1998, the world has
   known about radical jihad. ... the radicals insist that their
   central claim - God's desire for Islam's triumph requires no
   interpretation. According to them, true Muslims will pursue
   it by any means necessary, including dissimulation, civil coer-
   cion, and the killing of innocents ...

- - -

French Wars of Religion
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Wars_of_Religion
The French Wars of Religion (1562-98) is the name given to a
period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought
between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The
conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic
houses of France ...

At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted
substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it
did not end hostility towards them. During the wars it is estimated
that the population of France, at between 16 to 18 million people
in 1600, fell by 2 to 4 million through a combination of famine,
disease and combat. ...

- - -

Thirty Years' War
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirty_Years%27_War
The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was one of the most destruc-
tive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily
 (though not exclusively) in Germany and at various points involved
most of the countries of Europe. Naval warfare also reached over-
seas and shaped the colonial formation of future nations.

The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were com-
plex and no single cause can accurately be described as the main
reason for the fighting. Initially the war was fought largely as a
religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy
Roman Empire, although disputes over the internal politics and
balance of power within the Empire played a significant part. ...

A major impact of the Thirty Years' War was the extensive destruc-
tion of entire regions, denuded by the foraging armies ... Episodes
of famine and disease significantly decreased the populace of the
German states, Bohemia, the Low Countries and Italy, while bank-
rupting most of the combatant powers. ...

Per the following website, up to 11.5 million people died due to
this war:
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wars_and_disasters_by_death_toll

- - -

Torture of Witches
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torture_of_witches
The torture of witches is the various acts of torment and perse-
cution used against the accused during the witch-trials in Early
Modern Europe. Varied from non-physical, to extremely painful
and even death, these tortures were used primarily to coerce
confessions from the accused and perhaps cause them to name
their co-conspirators.

The torture of witches quickly began to grow after 1468 when
the Pope declared witchcraft to be crimen exeptum and thereby
removed all legal limits on the application of torture in cases where
evidence was difficult to find. With the publication of the Malleus
Maleficarum in 1487 the accusations and torture of witches again
began to increase, leading to the deaths of thousands. ...

Excerpt from the following article: "Witches"
  http://prohuman.net/history/witches.htm
... Witchcraft ...  "... From the late Middle Ages to the early 18th
century, vehement opposition to the witch cult was demonstrated
throughout Europe in public 'trials' and executions, conducted on
the basis of the biblical injunction 'You shall not permit a sorceress
to live' (Ex. 22:18).

Many of those who denounced these measures, pointing to psy-
chological factors at the root of alleged evidence, were them-
selves burned at the stake.

Victims of the witchcraft trials have been variously estimated
to number from the hundreds of thousands to the millions. ..." ...

Excerpts applying to witches from the following article:
"Christian Church History"
  http://prohuman.net/history/christian_church_history.htm
... The Crusades, the Inquisition, the witch burnings, the tor-
ture of 'infidels' were all carried out in the name of the Christian
God. ...

For 1500 years, the Christian Church systematically operated
torture chambers throughout Europe. Torture was the rule, not
the exception. Next to the Bible, the most influential and vener-
ated book in Christian history was the Malleus Maleficarum
(Hammer of Witches), which was a step-by-step tutorial in
how to torture 'witches' and 'sorcerers.'

Each year, the Christian Church in Europe tortured to death
tens of thousands of people, including children as young as
two years of age. ...

It was the 300 year period of witch-hunting from the fifteenth
to the eighteenth century, what R.H. Robbins called 'the shock-
ing nightmare, the foulest crime and deepest shame of western
civilization', that ensured the European abandonment of the
belief in magic. ...

Pope John XXII formalized the persecution of witchcraft in
1320 when he authorized the Inquisition to prosecute sorcery. ...

'In Italy, the Inquisition was condemning people to death until
the end of the eighteenth century, and inquisitional torture was
not abolished in the Catholic Church until 1816. The last bas-
tion of support for the reality of witchcraft and the necessity
of punishment has been the Christian churches.'
-Carl Sagan, 'The Demon-Haunted World' ...

- - -

Religious violence
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_violence
... Religious violence and Extremism (also called Communal vio-
lence) is a term that covers all phenomena where religion, in any
of its forms, is either the subject or object of individual or collec-
tive violent behavior. ... Christian terrorism ... From the viewpoint
of the terrorist, Christian scripture and theology provide justification
for violent political activities. ... Islamic terrorism refers to terrorism
by Muslim groups or individuals ... have included airline hijacking,
kidnapping, assassination, suicide bombing, and mass murder. ...

- - -

Scientific Skepticism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_skepticism
Scientific skepticism or rational skepticism ... questions the veracity
of claims lacking empirical evidence. In practice, the term is most
commonly applied to the examination of claims and theories which
appear to be beyond mainstream science, rather than to the routine
discussions and challenges among scientists. ... Scientific skepticism
uses critical thinking and inductive reasoning while attempting to
oppose claims made which lack suitable evidential basis. ...

- - -

American Humanist Association
  http://www.americanhumanist.org/

- - -

Freedom From Religion Foundation
  http://www.ffrf.org/

- - -

EvolveFish.com
  http://www.evolvefish.com/

- - -

British Humanist Association
  http://www.humanism.org.uk/home

- - -

Council for Secular Humanism
  http://www.secularhumanism.org/

- - -

Humanist Association of Canada
  http://www.humanistcanada.com/

- - -

Humanist Association of Ireland
  http://www.humanism.ie/website/index.php

- - -

Humanist Society of Scotland
  http://www.humanism-scotland.org.uk/

- - -

The Skeptic's Dictionary
  http://skepdic.com/

- - -

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Atheism)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_atheism.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Bible Criticism)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_bible_criticism.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Christian Criticism)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_christian_criticism.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Failed Faith)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_failed_faith.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Freethought/Humanism)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_freethought_humanism.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Posts - Distance from Belief in christianity
  http://prohuman.net/disbelief/christianity/index.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Posts - Distance from Belief in theism
  http://prohuman.net/disbelief/index.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Posts - Philosophy (FREELOVER)
  http://prohuman.net/philosophy_freelover/index.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Posts - Philosophy (General)
  http://prohuman.net/philosophy_general/index.htm

- - -

SuperSearch
  http://www.dogpile.com

- - -

- - - - - - - - - - -

~~~
Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
  http://prohuman.net
(Freethinking Realist Exploring
Expressive Liberty, Openness,
Verity, Enlightenment, & Rationality)
~~~