(Most Recent Article: July 1, 2017)

This website
includes the most recent research information from web articles which use the old diabetes / diabetic / reactive hypoglycemia vernacular, but at this website they have been paraphrased / translated to use the new words for all of the conditions listed in the following graphic, in an endeavor promoting bursting the diabetes bubble while providing revelations, hope, and encouragement to everyone who has any of these conditions, who has friends or family members with any of these conditions, or who is at risk for coming down with any of these conditions (and that, unfortunately, includes everyone who is fortunate enough to not yet have any of these conditions).

For complete details supporting changing the old diabetes / diabetic / reactive hypoglycemia names, see Diabetes Bubble / Diabetes Bubble Burst, a superb and unique compilation of a vast amount of invaluable revelations about each of the Glucose Anomalies and one non-glucose anomaly (Insipidus).





The following information, paraphrased / translated from the web articles linked to, and based on my research into glucose anomalies since 2010 and my life experiences dealing with Insulinitis for over 56 years, since March of 1961 when I was diagnosed with Insulinitis at the age of 5.


July 1, 2017

'Neo-Islets', a Major Advance Toward a Functional Cure of Insulinitis?  

The cover of the July 2017 issue of the journal STEM CELLS Translation Medicine showcases the latest advance toward a functional cure of Insulinitis.

Scientists at SymbioCellTech (SCT), a small biotech company in Salt Lake City, developed a technology that combines Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) with culture-expanded pancreatic islet cells to form three-dimensional cellular clusters, termed "Neo-Islets".

A single dose of Neo-Islets administered into the abdominal cavity provides durable blood sugar control, i.e., insulin-independence, without hypoglycemia and without hyperglycemia and without exogenous insulin and without any medication and without the need for potentially toxic anti-rejection drugs or encapsulation devices.

SCT has already developed Neo-Islets for Insulinitis dogs and humans and, as shown in the article, successfully tested these in vitro and in vivo in Insulinitis mice.

Based on the strength of these preclinical data, SCT was granted approval by the FDA to begin testing in Insulinitis pet dogs. This study is currently underway.

In parallel, SCT is preparing for a phase 1/2 clinical trial in humans with Insulinitis.

The cited publication can be found here.
   
The July issue of the cited Journal can be found here.
   
About SymbioCellTech:

SymbioCellTech (SCT) is a privately-funded biotech company headquartered in Salt Lake City, UT, focused on the development of stem-cell therapies for the treatment of Insulinitis and Cellosis, microvascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and auto-immune diseases.

SCT is currently engaged in an FDA-sponsored canine pilot study to test the safety, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of its cellular therapeutic to functionally control blood glucose in Insulinitis in pet dogs.

SCT is also preparing for a phase 1/2 human clinical trial for Insulinitis.

For more information on SymbioCellTech.
  




February 2, 2017

GlucoTrack Status Update  

The first report on Glucotrack, from 2014, previously reported in an earlier version detailed in a separate area.

Updated status reported in 2017:
  • A device clipped on the ear, connected by wire to a display monitor, for indoor use as its readings are affected by wind and temperatures outside a range of 59 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • 3 bloodpricked glucose tests over 30 minutes required for calibration, the only bloodpricks required for the earclip which lasts 6 months before having to be replaced.

  • Restricted for use by those with any non-Insulinitis High Glucose Condition and for use by those with PreCellosis (and for that matter, anyone with Hut or anyone else unaware of their glucose status who is willing to undergo 3 bloodpricked glucose tests to use the device for up to 6 months) who are age 18 and above (unknown why the age is restricted to age 18 and above).

    Insulinitis has higher and faster fluctuations of glucose levels which are outside the capability of the current GlucoTrack (a model for those with Insulinitis is in research and is not yet available; likewise, models for use during sleep, for providing continuous glucose monitoring, for providing alerts, & for providing wireless capability are in research and are not yet available)

  • The device without earclip costs $2,000, and the ear clip costs $120 every 6 months.
  • Clinical trials in the U.S., required for FDA approval, are reported as scheduled to "begin soon", but the word soon, difficult to know when that will occur and when it might be approved in the U.S.




December 28, 2016

Retraction of Closer to a Functional Cure for Insulinitis than Any Time in History?  

Complete details on the initial excitement regarding Closer to a Functional Cure for Insulinitis than Any Time in History? appears in the original article below, posted October, 2014, but (direct quote from the retraction article): In a retraction notice posted this week, Melton and his Harvard co-authors concede that their initial conclusion "is wrong and cannot be supported," effectively burying the once-promising idea.





September 30, 2015

Ed Damiano's Bionic Pancreas : Encouraging Results  




In assessing the numbers in the reports on Ed Damiano's research results about test subjects who've used the bionic pancreas, I noted that Damiano's goal for the bionic pancreas,
average HbA1c levels from 6.0 to 7.0, which equals average glucose levels from 125 to 154, was disappointingly high.

Upon further research into Damiano's efforts, I've found encouraging results regarding some individuals who achieved a lower HbA1c level without hypoglycemic problems, and I found one who had an especially pronounced and profound decrease in HbA1c level, as presented below, indicating that it's possible that individuals like myself, who have an HbA1c level in the low 5s, might be able to match or better that with Damiano's bionic pancreas.

In figure S9 on page 20 of the Supplementary Appendix for the Outpatient Glycemic Control with a Bionic Pancreas in Insulinitis, adult subject #B12 had an average glucose level of 221 mg/dl prior to going on the bionic pancreas. After a one-day online adjustment with a bionic pancreas, for the next 4 days that individual had an average glucose level of 119 mg/dl, with no glucose readings < 60 mg/dl, and with a percent of glucose readings between 70 mg/dl and 180 mg/dl = 97.6%.

Previous article regarding the goal of having Ed Damiano's bionic pancreas approved and available to the general public by the end of 2017.





July 15, 2015

Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring via Low-Powered Lasers : Glucosense Diagnostics




This device enables both intermittent monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring without any implanted sensor. The device includes a piece of nano-engineered silica glass with ions that fluoresce in infrared light when a low power laser light hits them. When the glass is in contact with the skin, the extent of fluorescence signal varies in relation to the concentration of glucose in the blood. The device measures the length of time the fluorescence lasts for and uses that to calculate the glucose level. This process takes less than 30 seconds.

Unknown when this device might be ready for human clinical trials, but the article states that it has the "promise of becoming the first non-invasive way to measure glucose levels."

Glucosense website.

Previous articles regarding noninvasive glucose testing.





June 28, 2015

Smart Insulin Patch?


Zhen Gu's latest advance (refer to Zhen's previous efforts) offers the possibility that "smart insulin" could be delivered via an insulin patch that would achieve the following goals:
  • automatic continuous detection of glucose levels and automatic release of insulin in appropriate amounts on an as needed basis

  • use of intelligent insulin nanoparticles creating emulation of the glucose-sensing & automatic insulin release of fully functional beta cells which effectively deal with rising glucose levels in everyone who has no glucose anomaly

  • tuning the amount of insulin delivered to attain glucose levels within a certain range by varying the dose of enzyme contained within each of 100 microneedles in each insulin patch (which is a thin square about the size of a penny)
Display of the insulin patch microneedles on the left, and the actual penny-size insulin patch on the right.



Zhen's previous goal of also delivering glucagon to handle when the glucose goes too low, nothing mentioned about that in the announcement regarding the insulin patch. The insulin patch has been tested in mice, and the ambitious goal is to have the device "on the market" in two to three years, presuming that it's as effective in humans as it is in mice.

Unknowns?
  • what the HbA1c levels of humans using the device would be,

  • how well the device would be at automatically avoiding hypoglycemia,

  • how high human glucose levels would go prior to the lowering to "normal" levels which, per the articles, would transpire over 30 minutes,

    and

  • would the device also deliver the ongoing basal insulin as takes place in humans without any glucose anomaly, and which manually is handled in humans with Insulinitis via long-acting insulin injections or ongoing pumped insulin.




June 19, 2015

Non-Invasive Glucose Testing

New Wearable Noninvasive Continuous Glucose Monitor?

So, I'm working on trying to meet my deadline for a major revision to my Diabetes Bubble / Diabetes Bubble Burst proposal, in addition to this new Glucose Anomalies Research compilation, when I run across an article stating that Sano, a stealthy startup out of San Francisco, is using $10.25 million in seed funding to build a wearable sensor that measures metabolic activity.

Sano’s first product, slated for launch early next year, is a wearable device that continuously monitors blood glucose levels in a completely painless manner. How the device will work? Mysterious and undisclosed. Cost? Also mysterious and undisclosed.

Also interesting, the fact that this is the first glucose monitoring system not being promoted for use primarily by those with a glucose anomaly, but instead, per its founder, "it's a consumer product, meant to be for everyone."

Ideally, it will be priced & marketed in a manner that would enable its widespread use to inform millions of Americans that they're at risk of getting Cellosis due to their currently having PreCellosis (from the National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014, 86 million Americans had PreCellosis in 2012, and unstated, the overwhelming majority of them were unaware of it).




Non-Invasive Saliva-Based Glucose Testing

In April of 2015, a biomedical technology company, Quick LLC, announced a clinical study of their non-invasive device to measure glucose levels.

Details on the iQuickIt Saliva Analyzer, from a web article posted in December, 2013, include:
  • Placing a one-time-use Draw Wick in one's mouth to apply a small amount of saliva

  • Putting the Draw Wick into the iQuickIt Saliva Analyzer for a glucose reading which can be automatically sent wirelessly to others

  • A comparable level of accuracy compared to finger blood prick devices, but extensive clinical trials must transpire to confirm that; the article claimed the device would be consumer ready by the end of 2015, but that hasn't been confirmed elsewhere




In March of 2015, Australian researchers announced stamp-sized strips that can be printed from an inkjet printer, which would cost an estimated 1 cent per strip, and a device to read the stamp-sized strip would be required.  The test would be made by licking the test strip. Electronic designs can be downloaded and printed from an inkjet printer, mixing in an enzyme using paint /
ink which has semiconducting particles. It detects the presence and level of glucose when saliva touches the strip. Estimated availability? Two to three years.

Disadvantage? Probably, one would have to wait a period of time after drinking or eating a carb-containing substance, or one would have to drink and cleanse their mouth with water prior to using the strip for a glucose test.




Also in March of 2015, an article about DiabetOmics and non-invasive glucose testing using saliva appeared. The article mentioned that they had received a $4 million dollar investment to build a manufacturing plant in India. Unfortunately, other than the brief mention in the article, no details were provided, and their website doesn't have details other than discussing testing for the presence of High Glucose Conditions using patented differential protein glycosylation.





Non-Invasive "Smart" Contact Lens Glucose Testing

In July of 2014, Google partnered with a Swiss pharmaceutical company, Novartis, to develop a smart contact lens featuring a tiny chip and a sensor that would monitor glucose levels. A tiny pinhole enables eye fluid to reach the glucose sensor, measuring glucose levels every second. The glucose readings are wirelessly transmitted to a device to be viewed and, if desired, transmitted to others. According to Novartis, the contact lens won't be available 'til 2019 at the earliest.

In addition to providing correction for farsightedness (the condition which forces those above age 40 and others to wear glasses to correct out-of-focus vision of objects which are nearby) and detection / display of glucose levels, the contact lens might also facilitate night vision, cancer detection, and detection of glaucoma.

The following video uses the old term diabetics in referring to people who would be interested in the glucose-sensing contact lens, but actually, that word should be replaced with people with any glucose anomaly, primarily interested, and actually, many who don't have any glucose anomaly might be interested in knowing their glucose levels via a contact lens in order to guard against getting a glucose anomaly without their knowing about it.


"Google Joining With Pharma Company
to Build its Smart Contact Lens" Video







Noninvasive Technologies Outside the United States

In January of 2015, GlucoWise was stated to be a noninvasive glucose testing tool in development, scheduled to come to market (in Europe) in 2017. Unknown when it might be available in the U.S.

It measures blood glucose using a unique sensor and a nano-film and works by passing low-power radio waves through the finger or earlobe. It's said to be relatively affordable. The GlucoWise website.







In November of 2014, Noviosense patented a wireless flexible spring like glucose sensor for placement 'neath the lower eyelid, painlessly transmitting glucose levels to a smart phone (or, in the future, to an insulin pump as part of a closed loop system constantly monitoring glucose levels & dosing appropriate levels of insulin & glucagon).

Currently, market introduction is scheduled to commence in 2018.



The following video at the Noviosense website (without sound, unfortunately):
  1. displays the sensor 'neath the lower eyelid, with the micro electrochemical cell depicted by three wires.

  2. The first wire shown (green: the working electrode) is coated with an immobilized enzyme that converts glucose into gluconic acid leaving the co-enzyme FAD reduced to FADH.

  3. An oxygen molecule oxidizes the co-factor, producing a short lived molecule of hydrogen peroxide which is converted to water on the electrode surface, resulting in an electric current (measured using the red & blue electrodes in the video).

  4. The electrical signal is transmitted via the antenna (yellow).

  5. (Artificial or Bionic Pancreas) The electrical signal will enable a closed loop system with an insulin & glucagon pump to provide automatic insulin & glucagon dosing in the future
"Noviosense Technology" Video (without sound, unfortunately)






In April of 2014, GlucoTrack was reported to have European CE Mark approval for a noninvasive glucose monitor attached to the ear via a clip-on, and was said to have plans for beginning U.S. trials in 2014. I've been unable to confirm the status of any clinical trials or FDA approval in the U.S. The clip-on ear device is attached to reading device via a cable. No test strips are required, but the clip-on ear device must be replaced every 6 months. (for updated status, see above)



Per the distributor website, it's currently distributed in Australia, Belarus, Estonia, Hong Kong, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Philippines, Spain, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, and Uruguay.




A similar noninvasive glucose monitor device attachable via an ear lobe, being developed in the U.S. by Grove Instruments, while researching to ascertain how close they were coming to an actual ready-for-market product, I unfortunately discovered they went bankrupt in April, 2015.





May 15, 2015

Bionic Pancreas test results / goals - will it be widely available by the end of 2017? 


In assessing the numbers in the reports on Ed Damiano's research results about test subjects who've used the bionic pancreas, I used the A1c to Glucose Levels chart.
Ed is especially motivated to improve the plight of those with Insulinitis as his son was diagnosed with Insulinitis at age 11.
  
Ed Damiano, head researcher, says the goal for the bionic pancreas efforts he's engaged in is to have HbA1c levels of 6.5, which per the chart above, equals an average glucose level of 140, the point at which an individual is assessed as having a High Glucose Condition. This, per Damiano's comments in the following video, is apparently the conversion chart Damiano is using.

Disappointingly high glucose level. As I've documented many times, my HbA1c level for  the past few tests, over a period of a year, has been 5.1 (average glucose level of 100 per the chart Damiano is using, though I expect when I get the latest HbA1c test results back on May 29, my HbA1c will be up to 5.3 or thereabouts, based on my CGM showing my average has gone up a few mg/dl's).

In fact, I have a lab report from 2010, which shows my HbA1c level at 5.1. So apparently, that's a long-lived result of being on an intense insulin regimen, ever since I went on that after having a serious severe low problem when I became severely hypoglycemic unaware. The 5.1 HbA1c transpired after going on an intense insulin regimen using insulin pens and bloodpricked glucose tests. Recently, I began using a continuous glucose monitor (October, 2013) and an insulin pump (January, 2014).

In the following video, Damiano states individuals would achieve average HbA1c levels from 6.0 to 7.0, which equals average glucose levels from 125 to 154, per the chart above. Once again, disappointingly high.

Ed Damiano "Bionic Pancreas Closer to Reality" Video


Within the text of the articles which follow, I've documented what my CGM readings have been for the past 30 days, as a comparison to what was recently reported for those on the bionic pancreas.

Unfortunately, the version of the bionic pancreas Damiano is using uses tubes, something I've been able to avoid with my Omnipod insulin pump I'm currently using. The device would require one tube insertion attached to a glucagon-pump device, and another tube insertion attached to an insulin pump. Of course, a 3rd insertion, for the continuous glucose monitor, wouldn't have any tube.



Damiano also mentions that even though the bionic pancreas is being aimed for a late 2017 release for those with Insulinitis, he plans to at some point begin testing it for use in those who have Cellosis who use exogenous insulin in addition to whatever other medications they use to deal with glucose levels.

Table displaying clinical data from two recent bionic pancreas clinical trials:

Control Group (normal treatment)
Bionic Pancreas Group
19 pre-teens,  Summer Camp,  5 days, 2014
168 mg/dl, average glucose level
137 mg/dl, average glucose level
time spent under 60 mg/dl, 2.8%
time spent under 60 mg/dl, 1.2%
time spent over 180 mg/dl, 36%
time spent over 180 mg/dl, 17%
38 adults, separate trial
162 mg/dl, average glucose level
141 mg/dl, average glucose level
time spent under 60 mg/dl, 1.9%
time spent under 60 mg/dl, 0.6%
time spent over 180 mg/dl, 34%
time spent over 180 mg/dl, 20%

Compare the above figures to what I've had over the past 30 days using the manual methods of guessing at insulin dosages with an Omnipod insulin pump, and using a Dexcom continuous glucose monitor for glucose readings:

Average glucose level = 104 mg/dl

Percent of time below 60 mg/dl = 2 percent, with 1 percent between 55 and 60 mg/dl, and 1 percent below 55 mg/dl.

Percent of time above 180 mg/dl = 3 percent

So, my below 60 percent almost as low as those with a bionic pancreas, my average glucose level much lower than those with a bionic pancreas, and my percent above 180 mg/dl far lower than what those with a bionic pancreas had.

Certainly, my waking up every hour every night, I'd like to do away with that, and a bionic pancreas would allow me that option, -but-, and it's a big -but-, would the higher glucose levels, and the almost identical time below 60 mg/dl, be a net benefit, or would the higher glucose levels yield a greater chance of having adverse long-term sequelae?

Of course, one would hope that the bionic pancreas would allow an individual to shoot for lower HbA1c levels if they desired, and if so, my concern about the glucose levels being too high would be relieved -if- I could continue avoiding having severe lows (my last severe low, in January of 2014).

Also, it's possible that those who already have excellent glucose readings and average glucose levels close to 100 would be able to still have that, it's simply an unknown right now, because Damiano has yet to test the bionic pancreas on someone who has Insulinitis and excellent glucose levels using their current manual insulin guessing modality.






February 12, 2015

Insulinitis Cure Restoring Endogenous Insulin Production - Getting Closer?


Latest update on the work being done by ViaCyte, and in a separate endeavor, by Douglas Melton, to cure Insulinitis, or if it doesn't amount to a cure, to dramatically improve the treatment for dealing with Insulinitis.




ViaCyte's Pancreas in a Capsule

14 years ago, during the darkest moments of the "stem-cell wars" which oft-times had American scientists battling against christian fundamentalist Republican right-winger (on this issue) George W. Bush ...

... parents of children with Insulinitis (and the overwhelming majority of those who have Insulinitis, especially those who haven't been swayed by the opposition to embryonic stem cell research mindsets of those deeply steeped in ancient religious superstitions) were actively supporting research into curing Insulinitis using cells from human embryos.

Millions were spent on TV ads, lobbying, and countless phone calls to Congress trying to battle against the Bush-inspired embryonic research ban (near-ban, as he allowed a small number of embryonic stem cells be used in research, so long as the research was restricted to that small number if federal funds were involved).

Now, long after President Obama ended the Bush fiasco, the first test of an Insulinitis treatment / potential cure using embryonic stem cells has commenced.

In October, 2014, two pouches of lab-grown pancreas cells from human embryonic stem cells were inserted via incisions in the back of a San Diego man who has Insulinitis. Two others have since received the cells based on the efforts of ViaCyte.
 
The cells, once removed from early-stage human embryos, are grown in a lab dish and can develop into any of the cells / tissues in the human body.

Insulinitis is especially hard on the 50% who develop it in childhood, as well as the 50% who develop it in adulthood (from its oft-times dangerous life-risking onset to its constant life-risking insulin guessing treatment required to stay alive, currently, to the arrival, if ever, of the cure or of a dramatic improvement in treatment that eliminates or dramatically reduces the hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic and sequelae risks entailed in constantly trying to manually deal with the condition).

The perfect glucose levels of those with a fully functional pancreas, with second - by - second perfection of exact correct insulin dosages all of the time, and perfect responses by other hormones to raise glucose levels when the glucose is going down to the near-hypoglycemic side, all of that is gone in everyone who has Insulinitis ...

... despite close to 100 years of research after insulin was first used to treat a human in 1922, there is still nothing (other than exogenous insulin or high risk & rare procedures from islet cell transplants to pancreas transplants which require a lifetime of immunosuppressants) to offer those who have Insulinitis.

The following, for some reason ViaCyte refers to it as the VC-01 Combination Product.

ViaCyte biocompatible encapsulation device (compared to the size of a quarter), called the Encaptra Drug Delivery System, containing human embryonic cells (PEC-01 cells) which develop into insulin / glucagon / somostatin producing cells 16 weeks after insertion into the body:
 

 
The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation battled the restrictions invoked by the Bush White House, and supported a 2004 voter initiative in California that created the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, a state agency authorized to spend billions on stem-cell research, including embryonic stem cell research.

The California institute and JDRF have provided tens of millions for ViaCyte's efforts.

ViaCyte's approach to providing beta cells is to grow embryonic stem cell-derived immature pancreas cells, counting on the human body to transform them into working beta cells after being inserted. To solve the problem of an autoimmune attack, ViaCyte uses a protective plastic mesh capsule, which it fills with about 40 million of the immature pancreas cells. The capsule screens out the immune system's killer T cells, which are too big to get through the fine mesh, and allows the transplanted cells to receive nourishment from the bloodstream, as well to sense glucose levels and respond appropriately with insulin, glucagon, and
somatostatin.  

Some scientists are convinced that "cells in bags" are going to be the answer to curing Insulinitis.
 
The current human trial is meant mostly to test for safety, with the transplant recipients seeing some reduction in their need for injected insulin. Once approved, those with the ViaCyte implant would have to have new implants installed periodically (that time period, yet to be determined).  

Douglas Melton, a biologist at Harvard University who has two children with Insulinitis and is working on another Insulinitis cure (see the next article below), worries that the ViaCyte system may not work. He thinks deposits of fibrotic, scarlike tissue will glom onto the capsules, starving the cells inside of oxygen and blocking their ability to sense glucose levels and release insulin.

Melton also thinks it might take immature cells up to three months to become fully functional and that many won't become beta cells, winding up as other types of pancreatic cells instead.

ViaCyte thinks 300 million of its cells, or about eight of its capsules, would be enough.   

Last October, Melton's group announced it had managed to grow fully mature, functional beta cells in the lab, a scientific first that took more than 10 years of trial-and-error research. Melton thinks implanting mature cells would allow a bioartificial pancreas to start working right away.

To encapsulate his cells, Melton has been working with bioengineer Daniel Anderson at MIT to develop their own capsule. Anderson doesn't want to say exactly how it works, but a recent patent filing from his lab describes a container made of layers of hydrogels, some containing cells and others anti-inflammatory drugs to prevent the capsule from getting covered with fibrotic tissue.





Closer to a Functional Cure for Insulinitis than Any Time in History?

December 28, 2016

Retraction of Closer to a Functional Cure for Insulinitis than Any Time in History?  

Complete details on the initial excitement regarding this article appears below, but (direct quote from the retraction article): In a retraction notice posted this week, Melton and his Harvard co-authors concede that their initial conclusion "is wrong and cannot be supported," effectively burying the once-promising idea.

In October, 2014, scientists led by Douglas Melton at Harvard University announced a major breakthrough which many perceive as a "Yes" answer to the above question, a procedure that converts embryonic stem cells into fully functional pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin.

The following video, it initially refers to betatrophin cells - in actuality, it should have referred to beta cells; she may have been confused by the 2013 announcement by Douglas Melton that betatrophin might some day be used to increase beta cell production in those who have Cellosis. In any case, the old terms diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and diabetics were used in the video, and of course, the new terms that actually are being referred to in all instances in the video are Insulinitis and persons who have Insulinitis.

"Stem Cells Could Produce Insulin" Video


The breakthrough is largely attributed to Douglas Melton, who developed the groundbreaking new embryonic stem-cell treatment after his son was diagnosed with Insulinitis in infancy, 1993, and his daughter was later diagnosed with the condition at the age of 14, in 2001. Published in October, 2014 in Cell, Melton's work was a collaboration with specialists Felicia W. Pagliuca, Jeff Millman, Mads Gurtler and more than 50 graduate students over a 15-year period.

The problem: People with Insulinitis, all or nearly all of our insulin production has been destroyed.

The Harvard Gazette reports the transplanted beta cells are undergoing testing in nonhuman primates. Melton is working with MIT chemical engineering expert Daniel G. Anderson to develop an implantation device which protects the cells from autoimmune attack. It's already been tested and works in mice.

The following video covers this Insulinitis breakthrough in the first 2 minutes & 40 seconds. The remainder of the video covers 1)
from 2:40 to 4:38, a warning against a substance (AMP Citrate, aka DMDB) used in supplements for weight loss, workouts, and brain enhancement, closely related to a banned substance (DMAA) linked to heart attacks & seizures, 2) from 4:39 to 7:00, Britney Maynard relating how she would take her life due to having terminal brain cancer, 3) from 7:01 to 7:22, a 3D printed heart helped to save the life of a 2 week old baby, and 4) from 7:23 to 7:54, genes which influence the effect that coffee has on your body.

The old terms diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and diabetic mice were used in the video, and of course, the new terms that actually are being referred to in all instances in the video are Insulinitis and mice with Insulinitis.

"Breakthrough in Insulinitis Stem Cell Research" Video


Melton says that while the new treatment offers a lot of potential, it's too early to promise for sure that a cure for Insulinitis is "just around the corner." Melton is aiming to have implanted protected cells ready for human clinical trials in a few years.






February 9, 2015

Smart Insulin


An MIT chemical engineer, Todd Zion, who had been working on smart insulin since 1999, founded a company called SmartCells in 2003 to develop smart glucose-responsive insulin.

In 2010, a pharmaceutical company, Merck, acquired SmartCells, and little has been heard regarding their research since then (though some sources indicate Merck is close to beginning human trials with its smart insulin, L-490, but that has not yet transpired). However, JDRF has joined the effort, and other researchers have announced progress.

"JDRF: Smart Insulin" Video






Nanoparticles

In May of 2013, Zhen Gu announced an advance in nanotechnology that would facilitate a "smart" insulin that might allow for normal blood glucose levels akin to what exists in people without any glucose anomaly to be maintained with -1- injection which lasts up to 10 days.

Wow, this would be, if it passes all the testing hurdles, a remarkable advance, and offers the potential to

  1. 'Cure' the hypoglycemia risks which everyone with Insulinitis is forced to endure with the 1922 level of insulin technology currently used

  2. Ideally, if the "smart" insulin is as effective as reported in the following, HbA1c levels would be normalized, and everyone using the "smart" insulin would have risks of both short-term -and- long-term adverse impacts of their conditions and treatments minimized or placed very close to being eliminated

  3. Ideally, if the "smart" insulin is as effective as reported by Gu (albeit, only in mice thus far), ...
... those of us who currently do up to and over -10- bloodpricks per day and night and up to -6- insulin injections per day and night (-or- for insulin pumpers, who deal with the overhead of having an attached insulin pump device and making multiple insulin dosing decisions - I typically make over 10 dosing decisions each day and night, using an Omnipod along with my continuous glucose monitor), will no longer do bloodpricks, will no longer use attached devices (neither pumps nor continuous glucose monitor), and will have -1- injection on, perhaps, a once per week or thereabouts basis.

The nanoparticles consist of a solid core of insulin, modified dextran and glucose oxidase enzymes. When exposed to high glucose levels (unreported, how high), the nanoparticles convert glucose into gluconic acid, which breaks down the modified dextran and releases the insulin.

The insulin then brings the glucose levels down, and unstated but critical, presumably the lowering of glucose levels is limited so that hypoglycemia cannot transpire.

Update to Gu's efforts, as of January, 2015: In January of 2015, Zhen Gu, an assistant professor in the UNC-NCSU joint department of biomedical engineering, received a $1.625 million dollar grant (from the American Diabetes Association) to create synthetic versions of beta cells.

In the past 4 years, Gu has tested half a dozen ideas, including tiny capsules made from shrimp shells and seaweed, painless microneedle patches, and
nanoparticles. Nothing has performed as well as healthy beta cells, nature's miraculous "creation" that (along with alpha cells and an array of complex intrabody metabolic activity) constantly keeps glucose levels normalized in healthy individuals.

Gu will use the recent grant to try to follow nature's lead to engineer the perfect insulin delivery vehicle via nanoparticles, part of an emerging field called biomimetics, which adapts designs from the natural world to address health problems. He now refers to the nanoparticles as nanovesicles, and he's also working on nanovesicles containing glucagon to respond if the insulin releasing nanovesicles lower the glucose too much.




Insulin with Phenylboronic Acid and Fluorine (Ins-PBA-F),
Glucose-Binding Modified Insulin Molecule with Glucose-Responsive Activity

In February of 2015, the first demonstration of a glucose-binding modified insulin molecule with glucose-responsive activity verified in vivo, in mice. Provided insulin activation when glucose levels went too high.

Unfortunately, in one source, they showed the insulin bringing the glucose levels down after they went above 300 mg/dl, a level far too high for humans - referred to as keeping mice glucose levels as normalized as healthy mice who don't have any glucose anomaly, and unknown if it would work at appropriate, much lower, glucose levels in humans, whose glucose levels don't rise above 120 mg/dl in those who don't have PreCellosis or any other High Glucose Condition.

It's mentioned that this insulin would be given once a day, but the article states they measured the glucose response over 10 hours, so unclear why they didn't measure it over 24 hours if it's supposed to last for an entire day.