Best of the Web / SuperSearch (3 of 3 : History /
Social / Legal - Text version)

(Top Posts - History - 121909)

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This post includes links to the best websites for history /
social / legal, including text excerpts from most of the
included Wikipedia links regarding those areas.

For the updated graphic version of this post, see

Best of the Web / SuperSearch (3 of 3 : History / Social /
Legal - Graphic Version)

The graphic version of this post, and its associated 'Best
of' the Web' posts on Disbelief and Science are accessible
from the "Best of the Web / Supersearch" drop-down menu
bar on every Pro-Humanist FREELOVER page.

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HyperHistory Online

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Louvre Museum

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Macrohistory and World Report, from Frank Smitha

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Art History Resources on the Web

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Encyclopaedia Britannica

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Holocaust Encyclopedia

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PBS - Mysteries of the Nile

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PBS - Pyramids

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PBS - Secrets of the Pharoahs

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PBS - The Roman Empire in the First Century

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Engineering an Empire - Greece : Age of Alexander

- - - - Milleneum (a thousand years of history,
11th century to the 20th century)

- - - - Visions of the 21st Century

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History Portal
History is the interpretation of past events, societies and civili-
zations. ... The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica stated that 'his-
tory in the wider sense is all that has happened, not merely all
the phenomena of human life, but those of the natural world
as well. It is everything that undergoes change; and as modern
science has shown that there is nothing absolutely static, there-
fore, the whole universe, and every part of it, has its history.' ...

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911 Mass Murders
The September 11 attacks (often referred to as September
11th or 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by
al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. ...

There were a total of 2,995 deaths, including the 19 hijackers
and 2,976 victims. The victims were distributed as follows:
 o 246 on the four planes (from which there were no survivors),
 o 2,605 in New York City in the towers and on the ground, and
 o 125 at the Pentagon.

All the deaths in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military
personnel killed at the Pentagon. More than 90 countries lost
citizens in the attacks on the World Trade Center. ...

Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United
States, and a fatwa signed by bin Laden and others calling for
the killing of American civilians in 1998, are seen by investigators
as evidence of his motivation to commit such acts. ... This state-
ment [1998 fatwa] begins by quoting the Koran as saying, "slay
the pagans wherever ye find them" and extrapolates this to con-
clude that it is the 'duty of every Muslim' to 'kill Americans any-
where'. ...

DVD : Inside 9/11 (National Geographic
Commemorative Edition) - Youtube video

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History of Africa
The history of Africa begins with the first emergence of Homo
sapiens in East Africa, continuing into its modern present as a
patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. ...

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Ancient History
Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning
of recorded human history in the Old World until the Early Middle
Ages in Europe. The span of recorded history altogether is roughly
5,000 years, with Sumerian cuneiform emerging from the proto-
literate period around the 30th century BC being the oldest form
of writing discovered so far. This is the beginning of history, as
opposed to prehistory, according to the definition used by most
historians. ... [see the links on the right of the Wikipedia 'Ancient
History' webpage for access to ancient historical articles by

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History of Asia
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several
distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia,
and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian
steppe. The coastal periphery was the home to some of the world's
earliest known civilizations, with each of the three regions develop-
ing early civilizations around fertile river valleys. ...

The civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China
shared many similarities and likely exchanged technologies and
ideas such as mathematics and the wheel. Other notions such as
that of writing likely developed individually in each area. ...

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History of China
Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow
River valley in the Neolithic era. The written history of China begins
with the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1550 BCE - ca. 1046 BCE) ... The
origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy, developed during
the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BCE to 256 BCE) that followed the Shang. ...
[see the links on the right of the Wikipedia 'History of China' webpage
for access to China historical articles]

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The Crusades were a series of religiously-sanctioned military
campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly
the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific
crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were
fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and
1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued
into the 15th century. ...

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History of Egypt
Multiple links to the history of Egypt, from prehistory to ancient
Egypt, Greco-Roman Egypt, Islamic Egypt, and modern Egypt.

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History of England
The history of England began with the arrival of humans thousands
of years ago. What is now England was inhabited by Neanderthals
230,000 years ago, while the first modern Homo sapiens arrived
around 29,000 years ago. However, continuous human habitation
dates to around 11,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age.

The region has numerous remains from the Mesolithic, Neolithic,
and Bronze Age, such as Stonehenge and Avebury. In the Iron
Age, England, like all of Britain south of the Firth of Forth, was
inhabited by the Celtic people known as the Britons, but also by
some Belgae tribes (e.g. Atrebates,Catuvellauni, Trinovantes). In
43 AD the Roman conquest of Britain began; the Romans main-
tained control of their province of Britannia through the 5th century.

The Roman departure opened the door for the Anglo-Saxon inva-
sion, which is often regarded as the origin of England and the Eng-
lish people. The Anglo-Saxons, a collection of various Germanic
peoples, established several kingdoms that became the primary
powers in what is now England and parts of southern Scotland. ...

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Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment) is a term
used to describe a time in Western philosophy and cultural life,
centered upon the eighteenth century, in which reason was advo-
cated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.

Developing more or less simultaneously in Germany, France, Great
Britain, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and buoyed by
the North American colonists' successful rebellion against Great
Britain in the American War of Independence, the culmination of
the movement spread through much of Europe ...

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History of France
The history of France has been divided into a series of historical
articles navigable through the list to the right [on the Wikipedia
'History of France' webpage].

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History of Germany
The concept of Germany as a distinct region can be traced to
Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the uncon-
quered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it
from Gaul (France), which he had conquered. ...

By 1900, Germany's economy was by far the largest in Europe
(and second only to the U.S. in the world). Defeated in the First
World War(1914-1918), Germany faced territorial losses and
war reparations. ... The Great Depression, which began in 1929,
led to a polarization of German politics and to an upsurge in sup-
port for the Communist and Nazi parties.

In 1933, the Nazis under Adolf Hitler gained power. The Nazis
imposed a totalitarian regime and followed an expansionist foreign
policy that led to World War II. After Nazi Germany's defeat,
the country was divided into democratic West Germany and com-
munist East Germany. In 1990, East Germany was reunited with
West Germany. ... [see the links on the right of the Wikipedia
'History of Germany' webpage for access to Germany historical

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History of Greece
The history of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the
Greek people, the areas they ruled historically, and the territory
now composing the modern state of Greece. [see the links on
the right of the Wikipedia 'History of Greece' webpage for access
to Greek historical articles]

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History of India
The History of India begins with human settlement that has been
confirmed to about 9000 years ago in the central Indian state of
Madhya Pradesh. However, evidence of human activity shows
the presence of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago and
hominids from about 500,000 years ago.

The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the
north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to
1300 BCE, was the first major civilization in India. ... [see the
links on the right of the Wikipedia 'History of India' webpage
for access to India historical articles]

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History of Italy
Italy, united in 1861, has significantly contributed to the cultural and
social development of the entire Mediterranean area. Many cultures
and civilizations have existed there since prehistoric times.

Culturally and linguistically, the origins of Italian history can be traced
back to the 9th century BC, when earliest accounts date the presence
of Italic tribes in modern central Italy. ... Rome emerged as dominant
city around 350 BC. ...

After the Roman Republic and Empire that dominated this part of the
world for many centuries came an Italy whose people would make
immeasurable contributions to the development of European philo-
sophy, science, and art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
... the Italian Peninsula was eventually liberated and unified amidst
much struggle in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... [see the links on
the right of the Wikipedia 'History of Italy' webpage for access
to Italy historical articles]

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History of Japan
The written history of Japan begins with brief information of Twenty-
Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts, in the 1st century
AD. However, there is evidence that suggests people were living on the
islands of Japan since the upper paleolithic period. Following the last ice-
age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese Archipelago
fostered human development. ... [see the links on the right of the Wiki-
pedia 'History of Japan' webpage for access to Japan historical articles]

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History (Ancient) of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia ... is a name for the combined watersheds of the Tigris-
Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern Iraq, eastern Syria,
eastern Turkey, and some parts of the Khuzestan Province of south-
western Iran.

Widely considered as the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopo-
tamia included Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires.
In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Neo-
Babylonian Empire, and later conquered by the Achaemenid Empire.
It mostly remained under Persian rule until the 7th century Islamic con-
quest of the Sassanid Empire. ... [see the links on this webpage for
access to extensive Mesopotamia historical articles]

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Middle Ages
The Middle Ages of European history (adjectivial form: medieval or
mediæval) is a period of international history covering roughly a mil-
lennium in the 5th century through 16th centuries. It is commonly dated
from the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and contrasted with a later
Early Modern Period; the time during which the Reformation and the
rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance unfolded are generally asso-
ciated with the transition out of the Middle Ages, with European over-
seas expansion as a succeeding process ...

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Military History
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general
historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its
impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra
and international relationships.

A conflict may range from a melee between two tribal groups to con-
flicts between national militaries, and a world war of coalitions affecting
the majority of the global human population. ... While human conflict
has been a constant factor in the process of human social evolution over
thousands of years, its historical recording only spans six millennia. There
is much disagreement about when it began.

Some believe it has always been with us, derived from conflicts with
other species; others stress the lack of clear evidence for it in our pre-
historic past, and the fact that many peaceful, non-aggressive societies
have, and still do exist ...

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History of the Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire ... was an empire from the 13th and 14th century
spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. It is the largest contiguous
empire in the history of the world. It emerged from the unification of
Mongoland Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolia, and grew through
invasions, after Genghis Khan had been proclaimed ruler of all Mongols
in 1206.

At its greatest extent it covered over ... 12,741,000 square miles, 22%
of the Earth's total land area, and held sway over a population of over
100 million people. ...

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History of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire ... also known by its contemporaries as the Turk-
ish Empire or Turkey ... was an empire that lasted from 1299 to ... 1922.
It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey ... on October 29, 1923.
At the height of its power (16th-17th century), it spanned three contin-
ents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North
Africa. ...

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History of Persia (Iran)
... Once a major empire of superpower proportions, Persia, as it had
long been called, has been overrun frequently and has had its territory
altered throughout the centuries. Invaded and occupied by Greeks,
Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and others - and often caught up in the affairs
of larger powers - Persia has always reasserted its national identity and
has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations,
with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC. ...

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Prehistory ... is a term used to describe the period before recorded his-
tory. ... The term 'prehistory' can be used to refer to all time since the
beginning of the universe, although the term is more often used to des-
cribe periods when there was life on Earth and even more commonly,
to the time when human-like beings appear on Earth. ... [see the links
on the right of the Wikipedia 'Prehistory' webpage for access to pre-
historical articles by the three-age system of prehistory: the Stone Age,
the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age]

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The Renaissance ... was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the
14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages
and later spreading to the rest of Europe. ... As a cultural movement, it
encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the
development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but wide-
spread educational reform.

Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renais-
sance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the
Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intel-
lectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps
best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such
polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the
term 'Renaissance man'. ...

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History of the Roman Empire
The broader history of the Roman Empire extends through 16 centuries
and includes several stages in the evolution of the Roman state. It encom-
passes the period of the ancient Roman Empire, the period in which it
was divided into western and eastern halves, and the history of the East-
ern Roman or Byzantine Empire that continued through the Middle Ages
and to the beginning of the Modern Era. ...

History of the Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire, was the Roman Empire
during the Middle Ages, centered on the capital of Constantinople, and
ruled by Emperors. ... As the distinction between 'Roman Empire' and
'Byzantine Empire' is purely a modern convention, it is not possible to
assign a date of separation, but an important point is the Emperor Con-
stantine I's transfer in 324 of the capital from Nicomedia (in Anatolia) to
Byzantium on the Bosphorus, which became Constantinople (alternatively
'New Rome'). ...

History of the Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire ... was a union of territories in Central Europe
during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period under a Holy Roman
Emperor. The first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was Otto I, crowned
in 962. The last was Francis II, who abdicated and dissolved the Empire in
1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. In a decree following the 1512 Diet of
Cologne, the name was officially changed to Holy Roman Empire of the
German Nation.

The Empire's territorial extent varied over its history, but at its peak it encom-
passed the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of
Burgundy; for much of its history the Empire consisted of hundreds of smaller
sub-units, principalities, duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, as well as
other domains. Despite its name, for most of its history the Empire did not
include Rome within its borders. ...

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History of Russia
The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. The first East Slavic
state, Kievan Rus', adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988,
beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian
culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state,
finally succumbing to Mongol invaders in the 1230s. ...

After the 13th century, Moscow gradually came to dominate the former
cultural center. By the 18th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow had
become the huge Russian Empire, stretching from Poland eastward to
the Pacific Ocean. Expansion in the western direction sharpened Russia's
awareness of its separation from much of the rest of Europe and shattered
the isolation in which the initial stages of expansion had occurred.
Successive regimes of the 19th century responded to such pressures with
a combination of  halfhearted reform and repression. ...

The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of econo-
mic breakdown, war weariness, and discontent with the autocratic system
of government, and it first brought a coalition of liberals and moderate social-
ists to power, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the Com-
munist Bolsheviks on October 25. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of
Russia is essentially the history of the Soviet Union, effectively an ideologic-
ally based state which was roughly conterminous with the Russian Empire
before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ...

...  by the late 1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political
structures becoming acute, the Communist leaders embarked on major
reforms, which led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. The history of the
Russian Federation is brief, dating back only to the collapse of the Soviet
Union in late 1991. Since gaining its independence, Russia was recognized
as the legal successor to the Soviet Union on the international stage. How-
ever, Russia has lost its superpower status as it faced serious challenges in
its efforts to forge a new post-Soviet political and economic system. ...

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History of Spain
The history of Spain spans the period from Prehistoric Iberia, through
the rise and fall of the second global empire, to Spain's current position
as a member of the European Union.

Modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula more than 35,000 years
ago. Waves of invaders and colonizers followed over the millennia, in-
cluding the Celts, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, and
Visigoths, with a few Vikings or Norsemen. In 711, a Berber and Arab
army (known collectively as moros, Moors, by the Spanish) invaded
and conquered nearly the entire peninsula. During the next 750 years,
independent Muslim states were established, and the entire area of
Muslim control became known as Al-Andalus.

Meanwhile the small Christian kingdoms in the north began the long
and slow recovery of the peninsula by Christian forces, a process
called the Reconquista, which was concluded in 1492 with the fall
of Granada. The Kingdom of Spain was created in 1492 with the
unification of the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon.
In this year also was the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the
New World, beginning the development of the Spanish Empire. The
Inquisition was established and Jews and Muslims who refused to
convert were expelled from the country.

In the next three centuries Spain was the most important colonial
power in the world. It was the most powerful state in Renaissance
Europe and the foremost global power during the 16th and most of
the 17th centuries. ... Financed in part by the riches pouring in from
its colonies, Spain became embroiled in the religiously-charged wars
and intrigues of Europe ... [see the links on the right of the Wikipedia
'History of Spain' webpage for access to Spain historical articles]

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World War I
World War I ... also known as the First World War, the Great War,
the World War (prior to the outbreak of the Second World War),
and the War to End All Wars, was a military conflict that lasted from
1914 to 1918 which involved most of the world's great powers,
assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies, centered around the
Triple Entente, and the Central Powers, centered around the Triple
Alliance. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million
Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More
than 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest con-
flits in history.

The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of
Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the imme-
diate trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic
foreign policy, played a major role. ...

By the war's end, four major imperial powers - the German, Russian,
Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires - had been militarily and
politically defeated, with the last two ceasing to exist. The revolution-
ized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map
of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller
states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing
another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war,
the repercussions of Germany's defeat, and of the Treaty of Versailles
would eventually lead to the beginning of World War II in 1939. ...

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World War II
World War II, or the Second World War ... was a global military
conflict which involved most of the world's nations, including all great
powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and
the Axis.

The war involved the mobilization of over 100 million military person-
nel, making it the most widespread war in history. In a state of 'total
war,' the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial,
and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the
distinction between civilian and military resources. Over seventy million
people, the majority civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest con-
flict in human history.

The start of the war is generally held to be September 1, 1939, with
the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and subsequent declarations
of war on Germany by most of the countries in the British Empire and
Commonwealth, and by France. Many countries were already at war
before this date, such as Ethiopia and Italy in the Second Italo-Abys-
sinian War and China and Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Many who were not initially involved joined the war later, as a result
of events such as the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the attacks
on Pearl Harbor and British colonies, and subsequent declarations of
war on Japan by the United States, the Netherlands, and British Com-

In 1945, the war ended in a victory for the Allies. The Soviet Union
and the United States subsequently emerged as the world's super-
powers, setting the stage for the Cold War which continued for the
next 46 years. The United Nations was formed in the hope of pre-
venting another world conflict. The acceptance of the principle of
self-determination accelerated decolonization movements in Asia
and Africa, while Western Europe itself began moving toward inte-
gration. ...

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History of the United States
The first known inhabitants of what is now the United States are
believed to have arrived over a period of several thousand years
beginning sometime prior to 15,000-50,000 years ago by crossing
Beringia into Alaska. These people are known as the indigenous
peoples of the Americas. Solid evidence of these cultures settling
in what would become United States territory is dated to around
14,000 years ago. Research has revealed much about the early
Native American in North America.

Christopher Columbus' men were the first documented settlers
from the Old World to land in the territory of what is now the
United States when they arrived in Puerto Rico during their sec-
ond voyage in the year 1493. Juan Ponce de León, who arrived
in Florida in 1513, is credited as being the first European to land
in what is now the continental United States, although some evi-
dence suggests that John Cabot might have reached what is pre-
sently New England in 1498. ...

African Americans
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-
Americans) are citizens or residents of the United States who
have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. ... Most
African Americans are the direct descendants of captive Africans
who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present
United States, although some are - or are descended from - immi-
grants from African, Caribbean, Central American or South Amer-
ican nations. ...

African-American history starts in the 17th century with indentured
servitude in the American colonies and progresses onto the election
of an African American as the 44th and current President of the
United States - Barack Obama. Between those landmarks there
were other events and issues, both resolved and ongoing, that were
faced by African-Americans. Some of these were: slavery, recon-
struction, development of the African-American community, parti-
cipation in the great military conflicts of the United States, racial
segregation, and the Civil Rights Movement.

Black Americans make up the single largest racial minority in the
United States and form the second largest racial group after whites
in the United States. ...

History of American Women
This is a history of the role of women throughout the history of the
United States and of feminism in the United States.

Antebellum Period
The antebellum period ... was the time period in America from after the
birth of the United States to the start of the American Civil War. The
Antebellum Age was a time of great transition because of the industrial
revolution in America. It also was a time of growth in slavery in the
American South. It was a phase in American history when America
spread towards the west coast ...

American Civil War
he American Civil War (1861-1865), also known as the War Between
the States and several other names, was a civil war in the United States
of America. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from
the United States and formed the Confederate States of America (the
Confederacy). Led by Jefferson Davis, they fought against the United
States (the Union), which was supported by all the free states and the
five border slave states. ...

The American Civil War was the deadliest war in American history,
resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers and an undetermined num-
ber of civilian casualties. It legally abolished slavery in the United
States, restored the Union and strengthened the role of the federal
government. The social, political, economic and racial issues of the
war decisively shaped the reconstruction era that lasted to 1877,
and brought changes that helped make the country a united super-
power. ...

Colonial America
The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of
the land from the start of European settlement to the time of indepen-
dence from Europe, and especially to the history of the thirteen colonies
of Britain which declared themselves independent in 1776. ...

Gilded Age
In American history, the Gilded Age refers to substantial growth in
population in the United States and extravagant displays of wealth
and excess of America's upper-class during the post-Civil War and
post-Reconstruction era, in the late 19th century(1865-1901).

Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of origins in Hispanic
countries of Latin America or in Spain - Mexican, Puerto Rican,
or Cuban - as well as those who indicate that they are other Spanish,
Hispanic, or Latino. Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality
group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's par-
ents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People
who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of
any race.

Hispanics and Latinos constitute 15.4% of the total United States
population, or 46.89 million people, forming the second largest
ethnic group, after non-Hispanic White Americans (which is also
composed of dozens of sub-groups) ... Hispanic and Latino Amer-
icans are the largest ethnic minority in the United States; Black
Americans, in turn, are the largest racial minority, after White
Americans in general (non-Hispanic and Hispanic). ...

Military history of the United States
The military history of the United States spans a period of over
two centuries. During the course of those years, the United States
evolved from an alliance of thirteen British colonies without a pro-
fessional military to the world's sole remaining superpower of the
late 20th and early 21st centuries. ...

Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples
from North America now encompassed by the continental United
States, including parts of Alaska and the island state of Hawaii.
They comprise a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic
groups, many of which survive as intact political communities. ...

Pre-Columbian Era
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the
history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of
significant European influences on the American continents, span-
ning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to
European colonization during the Early Modern period.

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus'
voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the
history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered
or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened
decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing. Pre-
Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great
indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Meso-
america (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec,
the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca,
Moche, Chibcha, Cañaris). ...

President (job description)

List of Presidents of the United States

History of Religion in the United States

Territorial Changes of the United States

Vietnam War
The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, was
a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and
Cambodia from September 26, 1959 to April 30, 1975. The war
was fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by
its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, sup-
ported by the United States and other anti-communist nations. ...
The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, including
3 to 4 million Vietnamese from both sides, 1.5 to 2 million Laotians
and Cambodians, and 58,159 U.S. soldiers.

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Human Rights and the Drug War

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Drug Policy Alliance Network

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ACLU - Drug Law Reform

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Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
(Freethinking Realist Exploring
Expressive Liberty, Openness,
Verity, Enlightenment, & Rationality)