(updated August 16, 2009)
Infinity (past) ....
The totality of
naturalism (all that is /
"...There May Be Other Worlds Out There, Extra
Dimensions, A Sea of Parallel Universes ... Level
One Parallel Universes (part of our space but so
far away we can't see it -- universe infinite in size,
possibility of infinity of universes)"
"... Level Two Parallel Universes (infinite soap bubble
universes in a sea of bubble universes in the 'bulk' or
'hyperspace', level one parallel universes exist within
level two parallel universes, chaotic eternally branching
universes -- bubble nucleation), Parallel Universes
Hold the Secrets of All That Is, Pre-Big Bang Physics"
"... Level Three Parallel Universes (infinite number of
universes exist in the same space as we exist in, in
"... Level Four Parallel Universes (physics could differ
from universe to universe), Physicists Hoping to Prove
That Parallel Universes are Really Out There"
"... At Least Some Kinds of Parallel Universe Almost
"... There Could Be an Infinite Number of Universes
Each With a Different Law of Physics -- Our Universe
Could be Just One Bubble Floating in an Ocean of
"... The Universe may be Nothing Special -- It is Nothing
More than One of an Infinite Number of Membranes --
Just One of the Many Universes which Make Up the
Inspirational Science (Tribute to Carl Sagan)
"... An infinity of the very small (when considering cutting
an atom in half, and cutting that in half, etc.) and an infinity
of the very large (when considering the cosmos and going
beyond the edge of all that is known), these infinities are
among the most awesome of human ideas, an unending
progression which goes on forever. ..."
"... How did the universe arise? What was around before
that? Might there have been no beginning? Is the universe
infinitely old? ... Hinduism and its notions of creation and
nature are explored. Among its ideas, some of which
resemble modern ideas of science & cosmology:
"...Some viewpoints on what life is all about ... And in the
infinity of that which has always been and will always be
(Nature 1:0) there was, is, and will always be the natural
(Nature 1:1) ... yes, an expansion of time and space did
take place in a finite part of an infinite cosmos ... (Nature 1:5) ..."
What did the 'big bang' bang into?
"... The standard presumption is that there was nothing, a bang,
and then everything. More recently, scientists have theorized
about a before the big bang realm, and of many dimensions
possibly existing beyond the -4- we're familiar with. Multiple
universes, also part of the possible realm of the 'all'. Cyclic
universes, also part of the possible realm of the all. Infinite
universes, infinite time, also part of the possible realm of the
Universe(s) Origin(s) Preface
Infinities / Singularities
Universe(s) Origin(s) 2 of 7 - No Origin of the Universe?
"... viewed through the eyes of a quantum physicist, the spon-
taneous appearance of a universe is not such a surprise,
because physical objects are appearing all the time -- with-
out well-defined causes -- in the quantum microworld ..."
Universe(s) Origin(s) 3 of 7 - Multiverse?
... Our entire universe may be just one element -- one atom,
as it were -- in an infinite ensemble: a cosmic archipelago.
Each universe starts with its own big bang, acquires a dis-
tinctive imprint (and its individual physical laws) as it cools,
and traces out its own cosmic cycle. The big bang that trig-
gered our entire universe is, in this grander perspective, an
infinitesimal part of an elaborate structure that extends far
beyond the range of any telescopes. ...
Universe(s) Origin(s) 4 of 7 - Universes from Black Holes?
"... is it possible that what is beyond the horizon of the black
hole is the beginning of another universe?... time branches like
a tree so that each black hole is a bud that leads to a new
universe of moments. ..."
Universe(s) Origin(s) 5 of 7 - Cyclic Universe?
"... our universe just one phase in an infinite cycle of birth and
Universe(s) Origin(s) 6 of 7 - Einstein / Big Bang / Superstrings
Universe(s) Origin(s) 7 of 7 - Nothing / Everything
"... the nature of being in this grand cosmos of wonder and mystery
whereby nothing is the most important something that resides at the
core of everything that has existed, does exist, and will ever exist ..."
billion years ago ....
WMAP data enables us to
determine the age of
A trip through the Big
Aim to Observe First Moments of Universe
WMAP picture of the
universe about 300,000
The first adult stars
were bright, short-lived behe-
~13 billion ....
Earliest occurrence of
Gamma Ray Burst (due to "cataclysmic
~11 billion ....
shatter distance record
Solar system to scale,
based on size not distance:
Position of our solar
system in the Milky Way galaxy:
Reference to geologic
time periods referred to
comprehensive Earth history, as of
Milestones in the History of Life & Evolutionary Science
~4.5 billion ....
Earth smash spawned Moon
"... The Earth and Moon
once one. The Moon
"... Analysis of lunar samples returned by the Apollo
astronauts confirms previous indications that the
ratios of the different types, or isotopes, of oxygen
in the Moon's soil are similar to those of Earth. It is
a finding that is consistent with the giant impact model
for the Moon's formation. ..."
For a brief recap of this event, see the beginning of
part 1 of Walking With Monsters:
~4.5 billion to 542 million ....
4.5 Billion to 542 Million Years Ago
"Precambrian time covers the vast bulk of the Earth's
history, starting with the planet's creation about 4.5
billion years ago and ending with the emergence of
complex, multicelled life-forms almost four billion
The Precambrian is the earliest of the geologic ages,
which are marked by different layers of sedimentary
rock. Laid down over millions of years, these rock
layers contain a permanent record of the Earth's past,
including the fossilized remains of plants and animals
buried when the sediments were formed. ..."
~4.4 to 3.9 billion ....
Asteroids may have enhanced early life?
"... These new results push back the possible beginnings
of life on Earth to well before the bombardment period
3.9 billion years ago ... It opens up the possibility that
life emerged as far back as 4.4 billion years ago, about
the time the first oceans are thought to have formed.
... hydrothermal vents may have provided sanctuaries
for extreme, heat-loving microbes known as 'hyperther-
mophilic bacteria' following bombardments ... Even if
life had not emerged by 3.9 billion years ago, such
underground havens could still have provided a 'cruci-
ble' for life's origin on Earth ... Exactly when life origin-
ated on Earth is a hotly debated topic ...
The discovery challenges our fundamental understanding
of processes active in the early history of the Earth. It
suggests that life may well have appeared on Earth long
before the period of heavy-meteorite bombardment
believed by some to have initiated the emergence of
life on Earth ..."
Simple Life Form
"... 4.2-billion-year-old diamonds ... are the oldest-known
samples of Earth’s carbon ... discovery of very high con-
centrations of carbon 12, or 'light carbon' within these
crystals is remarkable as it is a feature usually associated
with organic life. ... We interpret the range of light carbon
values observed in these inclusions as a unique chemical
marker that opens up the possibility of biological activity
during the period not long after the Earth’s formation ..."
Oldest Known Rocks On Earth Discovered:
4.28 Billion Years Old
"...The Earth is 4.6 billion years old, and remnants of
its early crust are extremely rare—most of it has been
mashed and recycled into Earth's interior several times
over by plate tectonics since the Earth formed. ... Geol-
ogists now have a new playground to explore how and
when life began, what the atmosphere may have looked
like, and when the first continent formed. ..."
~3.85 billion ....
Comet Swarm Delivered Earth's Oceans?
"... A barrage of comets may have delivered Earth's oceans
around 3.85 billion years ago ... Scientists have long sus-
pected that Earth and its near neighbors were walloped by
tens of thousands of impactors during an ancient event known
as the Late Heavy Bombardment. ... by the time of the Late
Heavy Bombardment, things had cooled down, allowing
meltwater from the flurry of comets to become the world's
... Greenland rocks contained about 150 parts per trillion of
iridium, supporting the idea that comets were the main players
in the Late Heavy Bombardment. All that ice from the comet
swarm then thawed to create a global ocean more than half
a mile (about a kilometer) deep ... it's possible that comets
seeded Earth not only with water but with life. According to
some controversial studies, the oldest evidence for life on
Earth dates back to about 3.85 billion years ago, around the
time of the Late Heavy Bombardment ..."
to ~3.5 billion ....
Oldest evidence of
... "The biochemistry
needed for oxygenic photosyn-
Adobe file with sizable
graphic displaying all life on
Time Tree Resources
Evolutionary history of life
Details on current life (300 species) which resides
near hydrothermal vents:
Map of currently known
hydrothermal vent locations:
of Life On Earth: Scientists Unlock Mystery
Biology Yields Clues to Evolution
Did Life Begin? RNA That Replicates
From the Stars, Scientists Confirm
Meteorites Delivered the 'Seeds' of
Earth's Left-hand Life, Experts Argue
Life's Building Blocks From Space?
Meteorites a Rich Source for Primordial Soup
Key to Life Before Its Origin On Earth
May Have Been Discovered
New Insights Into the Origin of Life On Earth
NASA Identifies Carbon-rich Molecules
in Meteors as the 'Origin of Life'
"... These molecules, called quinones, are poten-
tially significant for the "origin of life" or the habit-
ability of planets. ..."
Comet probes reveal evidence of origin of life,
"Recent probes inside comets show it is over-
whelmingly likely that life began in space,
according to a new paper by Cardiff Univer-
sity scientists. ..."
Discovery Implies Life Could Be
Everywhere In the Universe
"... Scientists have managed to create
'primitive cells' in an experiment which
may indicate that life began in space
and was delivered to Earth. ..."
The Ingredients : The Recipe for Life
Stage 2: combining these ingredients to make life
Life's origins among the stars
Study Offers Insights Into Evolutionary Origins of Life
Scientists Probing the Origins of Life Develop Method
of Making Novel Proteins Using a 21st Amino Acid
Clues to origins of life
Life 'began on the ocean floor'
Calculations Show Life's Origins
Possible In Volcanic Gases
NASA Scientists Find Clues That
Life Began In Deep Space
New Theory on The Mystery of the Origin of
Life Proposed by Weizmann Institute Scientists
Yale Scientists Recreate Molecular "Fossils," Now Extinct,
That May Have Existed At the Beginning of Life
Kick-start for life on earth
Origins of Life
(this video made in 2001, opens with a date of 15 billion
years ago for the Big Bang -- since this video was made,
WMAP has recently discovered that the actual age of
the expansion of the space-time continuum we exist in
is 13.7 billion years)