Best of the Web / SuperSearch
(2 of 3 : Science - Text version)

(Top Posts - Science - 121909)


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This post includes links to the best websites for science,
including text excerpts from most of the included Wiki-
pedia links regarding science.

For the updated graphic version of this post, see

Best of the Web / SuperSearch (2 of 3 : Science - Graphic
Version)
  http://prohuman.net/bestoftheweb2.htm

The graphic version of this post, and its associated 'Best of'
the Web' posts on Disbelief and History/Social/Legal are
accessible from the "Best of the Web / Supersearch" drop-
down menu bar on every Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
page.

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Encyclopaedia Britannica
  http://www.britannica.com/

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Scientific American
  http://www.scientificamerican.com/

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PBS - Science
  http://www.pbs.org/science/

PBS - Stephen Hawking's Universe
  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/html/home.html

PBS - Savage Earth
  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/savageearth/

PBS - Into the Abyss
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/abyss/

PBS - Triumph of Life
  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/triumph-of-life/introduction/1873/

PBS - Odyssey of Life
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/odyssey/

PBS - Intimate Strangers : Unseen Life on Earth
  http://www.pbs.org/opb/intimatestrangers/

PBS - Cut to the Heart
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/

PBS - Galileo's Battle for the Heavens
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/

PBS - Judgment Day : Intelligent Design on Trial
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/beta/evolution/intelligent-design-trial.html

PBS - Evolution, A Journey Into Where We're From
        and Where We're Going
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/

PBS - Closer to Truth : Science, Meaning and the Future
  http://www.pbs.org/kcet/closertotruth/

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The Official String Theory Website
  http://superstringtheory.com/

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Space.com
  http://www.space.com/

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BBC - Walking With Dinosaurs
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/prehistoric_life/tv_radio/wwdinosaurs/

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Tree of Life Web Project
  http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html

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Dinosauria On-line
  http://www.dinosauria.com/

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An On-line Biology Book
  http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobooktoc.html

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Science and Creationism : A View from
the National Academy of Sciences
  http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6024

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University of California Museum of Paleontology
  http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/

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BBC - Human Beginnings
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/prehistoric_life/human/

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National Academies Press : Teaching About Evolution
and the Nature of Science
  http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5787

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DNA from the Beginning
  http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/

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Nature - Genomics Gateway
  http://www.nature.com/omics/index.html

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Science Magazine - The Human Genome
  http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol291/issue5507/

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National Geographic
  http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/

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Discovery Channel
  http://dsc.discovery.com/

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New Scientist Magazine
  http://www.newscientist.com/

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Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum
  http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/lobby.html

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Paleomap Project
  http://www.scotese.com/earth.htm

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Physorg.com Evolution News
  http://www.physorg.com/biology-news/evolution/

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Science Portal
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Science
Science, in the broadest sense of the term, refers to any
system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. In a
more restricted sense, science refers to a system of ac-
quiring knowledge based on empiricism, experimenta-
tion, and methodological naturalism, as well as to the
organized body of knowledge humans have gained by
such qualified research.

Scientists maintain that scientific investigation must ad-
here to the scientific method, a rigorous process for
properly developing and evaluating natural explanations
for observable phenomena based on reliable empirical
evidence and neutral, unbiased independent verification,
and not on arguments from authority or popular prefer-
ences. Science therefore bypasses supernatural explan-
ations, it instead only considers natural explanations that
may be falsifiable. ...

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Anthropology Portal
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of the physical, social and cul-
tural characteristics of humanity. Anthropology has origins
in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sci-
ences.

... anthropology has been distinguished from other social
sciences by its emphasis on in-depth examination of con-
text, cross-cultural comparisons, and the importance it
places on participant-observation, or long-term, experi-
ential immersion in the area of research. ...

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Archaeology
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology
Archaeology... studies historical human cultures through
the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation
of material culture and environmental data, including archi-
tecture, artifacts, biofacts, and landscapes. Archaeology
aims to understand humankind through these humanistic
endeavors. In the United States it is commonly considered
to be a subset of anthropology ...

Archaeology involves surveyance, excavation and eventu-
ally analysis of data collected in order to learn more about
the past. ... archaeology is particularly useful in discovering
information about human Prehistory, which comprises over
99% of total human history, due to of the lack of written
sources for this period and the full reliance on archaeolog-
ical evidence. However, alongside this it is also used to
investigate more recent history, even that reaching back
only a few decades. ...

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Astronomy
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomy
Astronomy is the scientific study of celestial objects ... and
phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere ...
It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, mete-
orology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the form-
ation and development of the universe.

... the invention of the telescope was required before astro-
nomy was able to develop into a modern science. ... Since
the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split
into observational and theoretical branches. ...

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Biology
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology
Biology ... is the natural science concerned with the study of
life and living organisms, including their structure, function,
growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. ...

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Biotechnology
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology
Biotechnology ... Modern use of the term usually refers to
genetic engineering as well as cell- and tissue culture technol-
ogies. ...

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Chemistry
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry
Chemistry ...  is the science concerned with the composition,
behavior, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the
changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. It is a physical
science for studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and
other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination,
which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in rela-
tion to the spontaneity of chemical processes. ...

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Evolution
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution
... In biology, evolution is change in the genetic material of a
population of organisms from one generation to the next. ...
Two major mechanisms determine which variants will become
more common or rare in a population.

One is natural selection, a process that causes helpful traits (those
that increase the chance of survival and reproduction) to become
more common in a population and causes harmful traits to be-
come more rare. ...  The other ... is genetic drift, an independent
process that produces random changes in the frequency of traits
in a population. Genetic drift results from the role that chance
plays in whether a given trait will be passed on as individuals
survive and reproduce. ...

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Evolutionary Biology Portal
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Evolutionary_biology
Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with
the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multi-
plication, and diversity over time.

Biologically, evolution is the change in the inherited traits of a
population from generation to generation. These traits are the
expression of genes that are copied and passed on to offspring
during reproduction. Mutations in these genes can produce new
or altered traits, resulting in heritable differences (genetic varia-
tion) between organisms.

New traits can also come from transfer of genes between popu-
lations, as in migration, or between species, in horizontal gene
transfer. Evolution occurs when these heritable differences be-
come more common or rare in a population, either non-randomly
through natural selection or randomly through genetic drift.

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Evolutionary History of Life on Earth
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_history_of_life
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by
which living and fossil organisms evolved. It stretches from the
origin of life on Earth, thought to be over 3,500 million years ago,
to the present day. The similarities between all present day organ-
isms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all
known species have diverged through the process of evolution.

Microbial mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea were the domin-
ant form of life in the early Archean and many of the major steps in
early evolution are thought to have taken place within them. ...

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Genetics
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics
Genetics ... is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.
The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used
since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through
selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which
seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the
work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-nineteenth century. ...

Genes correspond to regions within DNA, a molecule composed
of a chain of four different types of nucleotides-the sequence of these
nucleotides is the genetic information organisms inherit. DNA natur-
ally occurs in a double stranded form, with nucleotides on each
strand complementary to each other. Each strand can act as a tem-
plate for creating a new partner strand - this is the physical method
for making copies of genes that can be inherited. ...

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History of the Earth
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Earth
The history of the Earth describes the most important events and
fundamental stages in the development of the planet Earth from its
formation to the present day during the last 4.6 billion years. Nearly
all branches of natural science have contributed to the understanding
of the main events of the Earth's past. The Earth is approximately one
third of the age of the universe. Immense geological and biological
changes have occurred during that time span. ...

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History of Science
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science
Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge
about the natural world, produced by ... researchers making use of
scientific methods, which emphasize the observation, explanation,
and prediction of real world phenomena by experiment. ...

Tracing the exact origins of modern science is possible through the
many important texts which have survived from the classical world.
However, the word scientist is relatively recent-first coined by
William Whewell in the 19th century. Previously, people investigat-
ing nature called themselves natural philosophers. ...

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Human Evolution
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_evolution
... The study of human evolution encompasses many scientific disci-
plines, including physical anthropology, primatology,archaeology,
linguistics and genetics. The term 'human' in the context of human
evolution refers to the genus Homo, but studies of human evolution
usually include other hominids, such as the Australopithecines.

The genus Homo had diverged from the Australopithecines by about
2.3 to 2.4 million years ago in Africa. Scientists have estimated that
humans branched off from their common ancestor with chimpanzees
 - the only other living hominins - about 5-7 million years ago. Several
species of Homo evolved and are now extinct. These include Homo
erectus, which inhabited Asia, and Homo neanderthalensis, which
inhabited Europe. Archaic Homo sapiens evolved between 400,000
and 250,000 years ago.

The dominant view among scientists concerning the origin of anatom-
ically modern humans is the 'Out of Africa' or recent African origin
hypothesis, which argues that H. sapiens arose in Africa and migrated
out of the continent around 50-100,000 years ago, replacing popula-
tions of H. erectus in Asia and H. neanderthalensis in Europe. ...

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Molecular Anthropology
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_anthropology
Molecular anthropology is a field of anthropology in which molecular
analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between peoples,
ancient and modern populations, as well as between contemporary
species. Generally, comparisons are made between sequence, either
DNA or protein sequence, however early studies used comparative
serology.

By examining DNA sequences in different populations, scientists can
determine the closeness relationships between populations (or within
populations). Certain similarities in genetic makeup let molecular
anthropologists determine whether or not different groups of people
belong to the same haplogroup, and thus if they share a common
geographical origin. ...

Molecular anthropology has been extremely useful in establishing
the evolutionary tree of humans and other primates, including closely
related species like chimps and gorillas. ...

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Multiverse
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse
The multiverse (or meta-universe, metaverse) is the hypothetical set
of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together
comprise everything that physically exists: the entirety of space and
time, all forms of matter, energy and momentum, and the physical
laws and constants that govern them. The term was coined in 1895
by the American philosopher and psychologist William James. The
different universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel
universes.

The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within
it and the relationship between the various constituent universes,
depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multi-
verses have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy,
philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in
science fiction and fantasy. ...

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Paleontology
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleontology
Paleontology ... is the study of prehistoric life, including organisms'
evolution and interactions with each other and their environments
(their paleoecology). As a 'historical science' it tries to explain causes
rather than conduct experiments to observe effects. Paleontological
observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century
BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result
of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed
rapidly in the 19th century.

Fossils found in China since the 1990s have provided new informa-
tion about the earliest evolution of animals, early fish, dinosaurs and
the evolution of birds and mammals. ... Body fossils and trace fossils
are the principal types of evidence about ancient life, and geochemical
evidence has helped to decipher the evolution of life before there were
organisms large enough to leave fossils. ...

The final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular
phylogenetics, which investigates how closely organisms are related by
measuring how similar the DNA is in their genomes. ...

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Physical Cosmology
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_cosmology
Physical cosmology, as a branch of astronomy, is the study of the larg-
est-scale structures and dynamics of our universe and is concerned
with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ...

Cosmology as a science originates with the Copernican principle, which
implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on
earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand
those motions. ...

Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth
century development of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity
and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.
The twentieth century advances made it possible to speculate about
the origins of the universe and allowed scientists to establish the Big
Bang as the leading cosmological model ...

Cosmology ... drawing heavily on the work of particle physicists' exper-
iments, and research into phenomenology and even string theory; from
astrophysicists; from general relativity research; and from plasma phy-
sics ... unites the physics of the largest structures in the universe with
the physics of the smallest structures in the universe. ...

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Timeline of Evolution
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_evolution
This timeline of the evolution of life outlines the major events in the
development of life on the planet Earth. ... In biology, evolution is
the process by which populations of organisms acquire and pass on
novel traits from generation to generation. Its occurrence over large
stretches of time explains the origin of new species and ultimately
the vast diversity of the biological world.

Contemporary species are related to each other through common
descent, products of evolution and speciation over billions of years. ...

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Timeline of Human Evolution
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_evolution
The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the
development of human species, and the evolution of humans' ances-
tors. It includes a brief explanation of some animals, species or
genera, which are possible ancestors of Homo sapiens sapiens.

It does not address the origin of life, which is addressed by abio-
genesis, but presents a possible line of descendants that led to
humans. This timeline is based on studies from paleontology,
developmental biology, morphology and from anatomical and
genetic data. The study of human evolution is a major component
of anthropology. ...

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Timeline of Solar System
  http://tinyurl.com/timelineofsolarsystem

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Timeline of Stars
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_timeline_of_the_Stelliferous_Era

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Timeline of Universe
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_timeline_of_our_universe

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Transhumanism
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transhumanism
Transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement
supporting the use of science and technology to improve human men-
tal and physical characteristics and capacities. The movement regards
aspects of the human condition, such as disability, suffering, disease,
aging, and involuntary death as unnecessary and undesirable. Trans-
humanists look to biotechnologies and other emerging technologies
for these purposes. ...

The term "transhumanism" is ... often used as a synonym for 'human
enhancement'. Although the first known use of the term dates from
1957, the contemporary meaning is a product of the 1980s when
futurists in the United States began to organize what has since grown
into the transhumanist movement. Transhumanist thinkers predict that
human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into
beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label 'post-
human'. ...

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Universe
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe
The Universe comprises everything we perceive to physically exist,
the entirety of space and time, all forms of matter and energy, and
the physical laws and constants that govern them. However, the term
Universe may be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting
such concepts as the cosmos, the world, or Nature.

The word Universe is usually defined as encompassing everything.
However, using an alternate definition, some have speculated that
the 'Universe' composed of expanding space-as-we-know-it, is just
one of many disconnected 'universes', which are collectively denoted
as the multiverse. ...

Observations of older parts of the universe (which are far away) sug-
gest that the Universe has been governed by the same physical laws
and constants throughout most of its extent and history. However, in
bubble universe theory, there may be an infinite variety of 'universes'
created in various ways, and perhaps each with different physical
constants. ...

According to the prevailing scientific model of the Universe, known
as the Big Bang, the Universe expanded from an extremely hot, dense
phase called the Planck epoch, in which all the matter and energy of
the observable universe was concentrated. Since the Planck epoch,
the Universe has been expanding to its present form, possibly with
a brief period ... of cosmic inflation. ... Recent observations indicate
that this expansion is accelerating because of the dark energy, and
that most of the matter and energy in the Universe is fundamentally
different from that observed on Earth and not directly observable. ...

Current interpretations of astronomical observations indicate that
the age of the Universe is 13.73 ( 0.12) billion years, and that
the diameter of the observable universe is at least 93 billion light
years ... It is uncertain whether the size of the Universe is finite or
infinite. ...

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Guardian - Science News
  http://www.guardian.co.uk/science

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Discover Magazine
  http://discovermagazine.com/

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation - Science News
  http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/

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Science Daily
  http://www.sciencedaily.com/

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Nature Publishing Group
  http://www.nature.com/

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How Stuff Works
  http://www.howstuffworks.com/

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The Why Files - The Science Behind the News
  http://whyfiles.org/

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Web MD
  http://www.webmd.com/

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Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
History/Origins/Future of Energy,
Matter, Space, Time, and Life ...
Universe(s) Origin(s) / Introduction
  http://prohuman.net/origins_august2009intro.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Immortality)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_immortality.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Science/Biology-Genetics)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_science_biology_genetics.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Science/Cosmology)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_science_cosmology.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Science/General)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_science_general.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Books/Videos for SHANANNAREEFERS (Science/Origins)
  http://prohuman.net/top_books_videos_science_origins.htm

Pro-Humanist FREELOVER
Top Posts - Science
  http://prohuman.net/science/index.htm

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SuperSearch
  http://www.dogpile.com

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