Universe(s)
  
  
   
   
   
 
 
 

Universe(s) Video
(Top Posts - Science - 071609)

1of5 -- The Universe - Parallel Universes
History Channel, 2008

There May Be Other Worlds Out There, Extra
Dimensions, A Sea of Parallel Universes,  There
May Be Essentially Exact Replicas of Us,  There
May Be -4- Types of Parallel Universes Out There,
Satellite Data Indicates There Could Be Parallel
Universes, String Theories, Level One Parallel
Universes (part of our space but so far away we
can't see it -- universe infinite in size, possibility
of infinity of universes) 



2of5 -- The Universe - Parallel Universes
History Channel, 2008

Flat Universe (or illusion of flatness), WMAP Baby
Pictures of the Universe, Level Two Parallel Universes
(infinite soap bubble universes in a sea of bubble uni-
verses in the 'bulk' or 'hyperspace', level one parallel
universes exist within level two parallel universes,
chaotic eternally branching universes -- bubble nuclea-
tion), Parallel Universes Hold the Secrets of All That Is,
Pre-Big Bang Physics    




3of5 -- The Universe - Parallel Universes
History Channel, 2008

Relativity Theory & Quantum Theory Are at War
With One Another (bringing those together would
give you a theory of everything), String Theory
Has Evolved Into What is Called M (or Membrane)
Theory (think of the universe existing in 11 dimen-
sions -- we all live on a giant & energetic membrane),
According to the Latest M Theory in the First Tril-
lionth of a Trillionth of a Second -- Membranes (in
a Pre-Universe Cosmos) Smashed Together & Pro-
duced the Big Bang (it can happen again & again &
again), Level Three Parallel Universes (infinite num-
ber of universes exist in the same space as we exist
in, in different dimensions)



4of5 -- The Universe - Parallel Universes
History Channel, 2008

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (particles can
& must be in multiple places at once), A Tiny Quan-
tum Difference in Thought Can Change the Whole
World, Anything That Can Happen Has Happened
or Will Happen in Some Other Universe in Some
Other Dimension of Space & Time, Level Four
Parallel Universes (physics could differ from uni-
verse to universe), Physicists Hoping to Prove
That Parallel Universes are Really Out There



5of5 -- The Universe - Parallel Universes
History Channel, 2008

Faced With Extinction in a Far-Flung Future Can
Humankind Open a Portal to a Parallel Universe?,
Wormhole (possibility of travelling to a different
part of the universe, or perhaps to another universe),
Universe Resurrection, At Least Some Kinds of
Parallel Universe Almost Certainly Exist



- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Parallel Universes - Part 1 (of 5)
BBC Documentary, 2001

Imagine You Could Find an Explanation For Every-
thing in the Universe,  There Could Be an Infinite
Number of Universes Each With a Different Law of
Physics -- Our Universe Could be Just One Bubble
Floating in an Ocean of  Other Bubbles, Einstein
Never Achieved a Theory of Everything,  We Now
Think that Matter is Made Up of Strings (String
Theory)



Parallel Universes - Part 2 (of 5)
BBC Documentary, 2001

The Very Beginning of the Big Bang was the
Single Biggest Mystery in All of Cosmology -- It
was Called 'The Singularity', String Theory &
11 Dimensions 





Parallel Universes - Part 3 (of 5)
BBC Documentary, 2001

All Matter Connected to One Vast Structure (a
membrane, in effect our universe is a membrane),

Membrane Theory (or 'M' Theory), Weakness
of Gravity Explained, From Every Corner of the
11th Dimension Parallel Universes Came Crawling
Out of the Woodwork
 



Parallel Universes - Part 4 (of 5)
BBC Documentary, 2001

Different Shapes of Membranes (each of which
is a possible parallel universe), 'M' Theory had
Unwittingly Made the Idea of Parallel Universes
Respectable Again, What Caused 'The Singularity'?
 -- What Caused the Big Bang? -- 3 Physicists (Burt
Ovrut, Neil Turok, Paul Steinhardt) on a Train (try-
ing to figure it all out, refer to following links for
details)

  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2001/paralleluni.shtml
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2001/parallelunitrans.shtml



Parallel Universes - Part 5 (of 5)
BBC Documentary, 2001

The Big Bang is the Aftermath of an Encounter
Between Two Parallel Worlds, As Branes (Mem-
branes) Move They Ripple (ripples caused clumps
of matter after the Big Bang), They Could Take
the Laws of Physics Back in Time to the Moment
of the Big Bang & Through to the Other Side, 'The
Singularity' Disappeared, 'M' Theory may be Able
to Explain Everything in the Universe, The Universe
may be Nothing Special -- It is Nothing More than
One of an Infinite Number of Membranes -- Just
One of the Many Universes which Make Up the
Multiverse




- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Observable universe
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observable_universe

Excerpts:

In Big Bang cosmology, the observable universe
consists of the galaxies and other matter that we
can in principle observe from Earth in the present
day, because light (or other signals) from those
objects has had time to reach us since the begin-
ning of the cosmological expansion.

...

The age of the universe is about 13.7 billion years,
but due to the expansion of space we are now
observing objects that are now considerably far-
ther away than a static 13.7 billion light-years dis-
tance.

...

The visible universe is ... a sphere with a diameter
of about ... 93 billion light-years.

...

Estimates of the matter content of the observable
universe indicate that it contains on the order of
10 to the 80th atoms. The vast majority of the
energy density is contributed by dark matter and
dark energy.

...

The observable universe contains about 3 to 7
1022 stars (30 to 70 sextillion stars), organized in
more than 80 billion galaxies, which themselves
form clusters and superclusters.

     "the Hubble telescope is capable of detect-
     ing about 80 billion galaxies. In fact, there
     must be many more than this, even within
     the observable Universe, since the most
     common kind of galaxy in our own neigh-
     borhood is the faint dwarfs which are diffi-
     cult enough to see nearby, much less at
     large cosmological distances."

WMAP Content of the Universe
  http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matter.html

- - -

Universe
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe

Excerpts:

The universe is defined as everything
that physically exists: the entirety
of space and time, all forms of matter,
energy and momentum, and the physical
laws and constants that govern them.

However, the term universe may be used
in slightly different contextual senses,
denoting such concepts as the cosmos,
the world or Nature.

Current interpretations of astronomical
observations indicate that the age of
the universe is

(13.73 + or - 0.12) billion years,

and that the diameter of the observable
universe is at least 93 billion light
years.

According to the prevailing scientific
model of the universe, known as the Big
Bang, the universe expanded from a gravi-
tational singularity, a point in space-
time at which all the matter and energy
of the observable universe was concen-
trated. Since the singularity, the uni-
verse has been expanding to its present
form, possibly with a "brief period" of
cosmic inflation.

Several independent experimental measure-
ments support this theoretical expansion
and, more generally, the Big Bang theory.

Recent observations indicate that this
expansion is accelerating because of the
low density of the universe, and that
most of the matter and energy in the uni-
verse is fundamentally different from that
observed on Earth and not directly observ-
able.

...

Experiments and observations suggest that
the universe has been governed by the same
physical laws and constants throughout its
extent and history. The dominant force at
cosmological distances is gravity, and
general relativity is currently the most
accurate theory of gravitation.

The remaining three fundamental forces and
all the known particles on which they act
are described by the Standard Model.

The universe has at least three dimensions of
space and one of time, although extremely
small additional dimensions cannot be ruled
out experimentally. Spacetime appears to be
smooth and simply connected, and space has
very small mean curvature, so that Euclidean
geometry is accurate on the average through-
out the universe.

Conversely, on a quantum scale spacetime
is highly turbulent.

The word universe is usually defined as en-
compassing everything. However, using an
alternate definition, some have speculated
that this "universe" is just one of many dis-
connected "universes", which are collectively
denoted as the multiverse.

For example, in bubble universe theory, there
are an infinite variety of "universes", each with
different physical constants. Similarly, in the
many-worlds hypothesis, new "universes" are
spawned with every quantum measurement.
These universes are usually thought to be com-
pletely disconnected from our own and there-
fore impossible to detect experimentally.

...

- - - end excerpt - - -

Update -- Science's Breakthrough of the Year:
Illumination Of The Dark, Expanding Universe
  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/12/031219073445.htm

Excerpts:

ScienceDaily (Dec. 19, 2003) - In 2003, new
evidence cemented the bizarre idea that the
universe is made mostly of mysterious "dark
matter," being stretched apart by an unknown
force called "dark energy." This set of dis-
coveries claims top honors as the Breakthrough
of the Year ...

This year, information from the Wilkinson
Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite
and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) tele-
scopes confirmed some of cosmologists' strang-
est proposals about the fate of the universe.

"The implications of these discoveries about
the universe are truly stunning. Cosmologists
have been trying for years to confirm the
hypothesis of a dark universe. Science is
glad to recognize their success in this effort
as the Breakthrough of the Year for 2003,"
said Don Kennedy, Editor-in-Chief of Science.

Those proposals entered the spotlight five
years earlier, when Science's 1998 Break-
through of the Year honored the discovery
that the universe was expanding. Such an
expansion would likely be driven by a "dark
energy" that counters the effects of gravity.
At the time, however, many cosmologists were
wary of this strange idea.

Their doubts were dispelled in 2003. WMAP
took the most detailed picture ever of the
cosmic microwave background -- the light
emitted by the universe during the first
instant of its existence. By analyzing pat-
terns in this light, researchers concluded
that the universe is only 4 percent ordinary
matter. Twenty-three percent is dark matter,
which astrophysicists believe is made up of
a currently unknown particle. The remainder,
73 percent, is dark energy.

WMAP also nailed down other basic properties
of the universe, including its age (13.7
billion years old), expansion rate and den-
sity.

...

WMAP
  http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/news/

WMAP Content of the Universe
  http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/media/080998/080998_Universe_ContentM.jpg

Excerpt:

WMAP data reveals that its contents include
4.6% atoms, the building blocks of stars and
planets. Dark matter comprises 23% of the
universe. This matter, different from atoms,
does not emit or absorb light. It has only been
detected indirectly by its gravity. 72% of the
universe, is composed of "dark energy", that
acts as a sort of an anti-gravity. This energy,
distinct from dark matter, is responsible for
the present-day acceleration of the universal
expansion.

WMAP data is accurate to two digits, so the
total of these numbers is not 100%. This re-
flects the current limits of WMAP's ability
to define Dark Matter and Dark Energy.

- - - end excerpt - - -

- - -

Multiverse
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse

Excerpt:

The multiverse (or meta-universe (metaverse))
is the hypothetical set of multiple possible uni-
verses (including our universe) that together
comprise all of reality. The different universes
within the multiverse are sometimes called
parallel universes. The structure of the multi-
verse, the nature of each universe within it and
the relationship between the various constituent
universes, depend on the specific multiverse
hypothesis considered.

...

- - - end excerpt - - -

- - -

Parallel Universes

Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes
are a direct implication of cosmological observations

by Max Tegmark 
  http://www.mukto-mona.com/science/physics/ParalellUniverse2003.pdf

Excerpts:

...

Level I: Beyond Our Cosmic Horizon

...

LEVEL I MULTIVERSE

THE SIMPLEST TYPE of parallel universe is
simply a region of space that is too far away for
us to have seen yet. The farthest that we can
observe is currently about 4 1026 meters, or
42 billion lightyears—the distance that light has
been able to travel since the big bang began.

(The distance is greater than 14 billion light-
years because cosmic expansion has lengthened
distances.)

Each of the Level I parallel universes is basically
the same as ours. All the differences stem from
variations in the initial arrangement of matter. 

...

Level II: Other Postinflation Bubbles

...

LEVEL II MULTIVERSE

A SOMEWHAT MORE ELABORATE type
of parallel universe emerges from the theory of
cosmological inflation. The idea is that our Level I
multiverse—namely, our universe and contiguous
regions of space—is a bubble embedded in an
even vaster but mostly empty volume.

Other bubbles exist out there, disconnected from
ours. They nucleate like raindrops in a cloud.
During nucleation, variations in quantum fields
endow each bubble with properties that distin-
guish it from other bubbles.

...

Level III: Quantum Many Worlds

...

LEVEL III MULTIVERSE

QUANTUM MECHANICS PREDICTS a vast
number of parallel universes by broadening the
concept of “elsewhere.” These universes are
located elsewhere, not in ordinary space but in
an abstract realm of all possible states.

Every conceivable way that the world could be
(within the scope of quantum mechanics) corre-
sponds to a different universe. The parallel  uni-
verses make their presence felt in laboratory ex-
periments, such as wave interference and quan-
tum computation.

...

Level IV: Other Mathematical Structures

...

LEVEL IV MULTIVERSE

THE ULTIMATE TYPE of parallel universe
opens up the full realm of possibility. Universes
can differ not just in location, cosmological
properties or quantum state but also in the
laws of physics.

Existing outside of space and time, they are
almost impossible to visualize; the best one
can do is to think of them abstractly, as static
sculptures that represent the mathematical
structure of the physical laws that govern them.

For example, consider a simple universe: Earth,
moon and sun, obeying Newton’s laws. To an
objective observer, this universe looks like a
circular ring (Earth’s orbit smeared out in time)
wrapped in a braid (the moon’s orbit around
Earth). Other shapes embody other laws of
physics ... This paradigm solves various prob-
lems concerning the foundations of physics.

...

A common feature of all four multiverse levels
is that the simplest and arguably most elegant
theory involves parallel universes by default.

...

Perhaps we will gradually get used to the weird
ways of our cosmos and find its strangeness to
be part of its charm.

- - - end excerpts - - -

- - -

Helpful references:

Richard Dawkins -- Growing Up
in the Universe 
Video
(041709)

  http://prohuman.net/science/growing_up_in_the_universe.htm
"Growing Up to a Proper Scientific Understanding
of the Universe Based Upon Evidence-Public
Argument rather than Authority or Tradition or
Private Revelation / Trying to Understand How
the Universe Works - Not Copping Out With
Supernatural Ideas that only Seem to Explain
Things -but- Actually Explain Nothing"


Large Hadron Collider Video
(041409)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/large_hadron_collider.htm
"... Are there undiscovered principles of nature?
What is the origin of mass? Do extra dimensions
exist? What is dark matter? How can we solve
the mystery of dark energy? And how did the
universe come to be? ..."

Known Universe (021509)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/known_universe.htm
"... examining the fabric of space and time ...
the vastness of the universe is discussed ...
deconstructing the biggest explosions in the
universe, including asteroid impacts, super-
novas, and the big bang ... Galaxy has billions
of planets that support life forms, says leading
astronomer ..."

Life Elsewhere in a 'Crowded' Universe?
(061808)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/life_elsewhere_crowded_universe.htm
"... as for stars with planets, the term 'crowded'
is used in the following to describe the latest 
discoveries of planets which a couple of scientists
view as increasing the likelihood that life and
planets are likely widespread in the particular
universe we happen to inhabit an itsy-bitsy tiny
part of, relatively speaking ..."

All That Is, All That Was, All That Ever Will Be? Video
(050208)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/all_that_is_was_ever_will_be.htm
"... Immortality? ... Immortal Suffering? ... Oblivion?
... Pleasant Immortality Hope? ... Totality of Reality?
... Cosmological Calendar ... The Universe - Cosmic
Apocalypse ..."

What did the 'big bang' bang into?
(071107)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/big_bang_banged_into_what.htm
"... The standard presumption is that there was
nothing, a bang, and then everything. More re-
cently, scientists have theorized about a before
the big bang realm, and of many dimensions pos-
sibly existing beyond the -4- we're familiar with.
Multiple universes, also part of the possible realm
of the 'all'. Cyclic universes, also part of the pos-
sible realm of the all. Infinite universes, infinite
time, also part of the possible realm of the all. As
for what the totality of 'all' that is natural is, exactly,
actualized human knowledge is profoundly sparse,
thus far, even though theories abound. ...
"

NASA Turns to the Dark Side (070407)
  http://prohuman.net/science/nasa_dark_side.htm
"... NASA has announced five new space missions
to track mysteries that go "beyond Einstein"
- where the universe came from,
- what it's made of, and
- whether space has edges.
..."

Infinite Universes, Infinite Size,
No "In the Beginning", No End (013107)

  http://prohuman.net/science/infinite_universes_infinite_size.htm
"Put another way, think of the all as always
existing, a circle of infinite size, with no
beginning, no ending, simply always there.
Any piece of that circle, simply part of
infinity, part of the all, and the all? Always
existent, always spawning universes,
always expanding. ..."

Evolution, not ID (122305)
  http://prohuman.net/science/evolution_not_ID.htm
"
... The ruling gives two arguments for why
intelligent design is not science but is, in
the judge's words, 'an old religious argu-
ment for the existence of God.' The first
is that intelligent design invokes 'a super-
natural designer,' while science, by defin-
ition, deals only with natural phenomena.
Second, the court found that intelligent
design suffers from blatant flaws in logic,
one of the chief tools of science. ..."

Cosmos (110905)
  http://prohuman.net/science/cosmos.htm
"... Inspiring, provocative, enlightening, enrich-
ing, these are but a few of the many accolades
describing Carl Sagan's greatest work in a life
cut far too short by the naturalistic forces Carl
went to great lengths to explain in this series. ..."

A decision between Goddunce -and-
Science? (102905)

  http://prohuman.net/science/goddunce_and_science.htm
"... 'Intelligent Design'? Goddunce, the theory
that an entity is responsible for all this, or even
more idiotic, that an entity is responsible for
all that is right with this world, and homo sap-
ien 'sinners' or 'nature' or 'the devil' or 'some
despised group' are responsible for all that is
wrong with this world.
Goddunce, if Bush and
his right-wing religious cronies have their way,
coming soon, to a public school near you,
maybe. ..."

-1- of over 8,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
(8 sextillion)? (011805)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/1_of_over_8_sextillion.htm
"... we're aware that there are over 80 billion gal-
axies in the particular space-time continuum we
inhabit, with perhaps over 100 billion solar systems
in each of those galaxies, for a total of over ....
... ~8,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (8 sextillion)
solar systems in our particular universe ..."

The Vast-beyond-Vast Size of the Universe (072603)
  
http://prohuman.net/science/size_of_universe.htm
"A perspective on the size of the universe...
If the entire solar system were reduced to the
size of a grain of sand, our Milky Way galaxy
would be *21 kilometers* across and our
nearest big galaxy, Andromeda, would be
*483 kilometers* away. The size of the
observable universe, on this scale, would
be *over 4 million kilometers*. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 7 of 7 - Nothing /
Everything (072802)
  
http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_7_of_7.htm
"... the nature of being in this grand cosmos
of wonder and mystery whereby nothing is
the most important something that resides at
the core of everything that has existed, does
exist, and will ever exist."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 6 of 7 - Einstein /
Big Bang / Superstrings (072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_6_of_7.htm
"... This proclaims that all the wondrous hap-
penings in the Universe are reflections of one
grand physical principle and manifestations of
one single entity: microscopically tiny vibrating
loops of energy, a billionth of a billionth the
size of an atom. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 5 of 7 - Cyclic Universe?
(072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_5_of_7.htm
"... A new theory of the universe suggests that
space and time may not have begun in a big bang,
but may have always existed in an endless cycle
of expansion and rebirth. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 4 of 7 - Universes
from Black Holes? (072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_4_of_7.htm
"... The basic idea is that black holes give rise
to new regions of space and time, and that at
these events, which resemble our Big Bang,
the laws of physics can change. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 3 of 7 - Multiverse?
(072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_3_of_7.htm
"... Our entire universe may be just one element
-- one atom, as it were -- in an infinite ensemble:
a cosmic archipelago. Each universe starts with
its own big bang, acquires a distinctive imprint
(and its individual physical laws) as it cools, and
traces out its own cosmic cycle. The big bang
that triggered our entire universe is, in this grander
perspective, an infinitesimal part of an elaborate
structure that extends far beyond the range of any
telescopes. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 2 of 7 - No Origin
of the Universe? (072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_2_of_7.htm
"... If a way can be found to permit the universe
to come into existence from nothing as a result of
a quantum fluctuation, then no laws of physics
would be violated. In other words, viewed through
the eyes of a quantum physicist, the spontaneous
appearance of a universe is not such a surprise,
because physical objects are appearing all the
time -- without well-defined causes -- in the quan-
tum microworld. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) 1 of 7 - String
Theory / Infinities / Singularities? (072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_1_of_7.htm
"... there are two reasons why many physicists
today think that strings represent the ultimate truth,
and are the basic building blocks of matter. ..."

Universe(s) Origin(s) Preface
(072802)

  http://prohuman.net/universes_origins_preface.htm
"... If 'unknown and explorable' is the choice of
those who, despite deistic/theistic backgrounds,
wish to explore and learn about the universe with
an open mind, I commend those folks and pro-
vide this series of posts to expand the scope of
knowledge regarding that which is possible within
the parameters of a naturalistic cosmos. ..."

Pro-Humaist FREELOVER Daily
020902 to 021402
A Recycled Universe

  http://prohuman.net/2002/02/09_to_14.htm
"...  
article which might lead one to contemplate all
that is from a perspective far removed from tradi-
tional religions (well, far removed from traditional
religions of the monotheistic god, though quite at
home with many of the cyclic ideas prevalent in
eastern religions like hinduism / buddhism / taoism /
confuscianism ...) and quite apart from the notion
that the big bang was "the" one and only big bang ..."
Unitelligible Redesign
"
article which iterates the reasoning behind the out-
right dismissal of the latest religious arguments for
god (intelligent design) ..."

Pro-Humaist FREELOVER Daily
010802 to 011502
First Stars Formed Much Earlier
Than Previously Thought

  http://prohuman.net/2002/01/08_to_15.htm
"...  
article describing the latest theories regarding
when and how stars first developed in the early
universe ..."

Intelligent Designer /
 'Irreducible Complexity' /
God / 'First Cause' (041001)

  http://prohuman.net/science/intelligent_designer.htm
"The evidence is clear that Intelligent Designer
and so-called 'irreducible complexity' are little
more than code-words for God and that, in fact,
within the area of remaining unknowns regarding
the origins of the universe and life, science is
humankind's only legitimate hope as the myths
from the caves of human ignorance just don't
cut it anymore. ..."

Everything From Everlasting
Not-Quite Nothing ... (040401)
 
http://prohuman.net/science/everything_nothing.htm
"... well, not really from not-quite nothing,
more like from a world that's theoretically
everywhere and every'when' while at the same
time nowhere in our substantive experience,
a world that has always been and will always
be, the sub-atomic quantum world ..."

Discovery Implies Life Could Be
Everywhere In the Universe (013001)

  http://prohuman.net/science/life_everywhere.htm
"... Scientists have managed to create
'primitive cells' in an experiment which
may indicate that life began in space
and was delivered to Earth. ..."

- - -