Amendments 11-27 to
the Constitution
of the
United States of America
(Top Posts - Social/Legal - 070900)

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Amendment XI - Judicial Limits. Ratified 2/7/1795.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend
to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the
United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects
of any Foreign State.

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Amendment XII - Choosing the President, Vice- President. Ratified
6/15/1804.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be
an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as
Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and
House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall
then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be
the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of
Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the
persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President,
the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state
having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member
or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives
shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the
Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or
other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President,
shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the
Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of
the United States.

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Amendment XIII - Slavery Abolished. Ratified 12/6/1865.

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

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Amendment XIV - Citizenship rights. Ratified 7/9/1868.

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the
State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right
to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and
Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress,
the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the
Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such
State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States,
or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other
crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer
of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution
of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such
disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by
law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties
for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be
questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume
or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of
any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held
illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation,
the provisions of this article.

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Amendment XV - Race no bar to vote. Ratified 2/3/1870.

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

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Amendment XVI - Income taxes authorized. Ratified 2/3/1913.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes,
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

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Amendment XVII - Senators elected by popular vote. Ratified 4/8/1913.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators
from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each
Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the
qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of
the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate,
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to
fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may
empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until
the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election
or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the
Constitution.

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Amendment XVIII - Liquor abolished. Ratified 1/16/1919. Repealed
by Amendment XXI, 12/5/1933.

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture,
sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation
thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all
territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is
hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power
to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified
as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several
States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the
date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

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Amendment XIX - Women's suffrage. Ratified 8/18/1920.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

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Amendment XX - Presidential, Congressional terms. Ratified 1/23/1933.

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on
the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives
at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms
would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms
of their successors shall then begin.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such
meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they
shall by law appoint a different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President,
the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall
become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before
the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect
shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as
President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may
by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a
Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act
as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be
selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or
Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any
of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose
a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon
them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom
the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice
shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October
following the ratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified
as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths
of the several States within seven years from the date of its
submission.

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Amendment XXI - Amendment XVIII repealed. Ratified 12/5/1933.

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the
United States is hereby repealed.

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or
possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of
intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby
prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified
as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several
States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the
date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

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Amendment XXII - Presidential terms limits. Ratified 2/27/1951.

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than
twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as
President, for more than two years of a term to which some other
person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the
President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person
holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the
Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the
office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which
this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or
acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified
as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths
of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission
to the States by the Congress.

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Amendment XXIII - Presidential vote for District of Columbia. Ratified
3/29/1961.

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States
shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of
electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of
Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would
be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least
populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the
States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election
of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State;
and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided
by the twelfth article of amendment.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

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Amendment XXIV - Poll tax barred. Ratified 1/23/1964.

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or
other election for President or Vice President, for electors for
President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in
Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

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Amendment XXV - Presidential disability and succession. Ratified
2/10/1967.

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death
or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the
President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon
confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written
declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the
contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice
President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal
officers of the executive departments or of such other body as
Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers
and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume
the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his
written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers
and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of
either the principal officers of the executive department or of such
other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable
to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress
shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that
purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days
after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in
session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble,
determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;
otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his
office.

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Amendment XXVI - Voting age set to 18 years. Ratified 7/1/1971.

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years
of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United
States or by any State on account of age.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

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Amendment XXVII - Congressional pay increases. Ratified 5/7/1992.

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives
shall have intervened.